Sudo Bug Lets Non-Privileged Linux and macOS Users Run Commands as Root – Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Joe Vennix of Apple security has found another significant vulnerability in sudo utility that under a specific configuration could allow low privileged users or malicious programs to execute arbitrary commands with administrative (‘root’) privileges on Linux or macOS systems.
Sudo is one of the most important, powerful, and commonly used utilities that comes as a core command pre-installed on macOS and almost every UNIX or Linux-based operating system.
Sudo has been designed to let users run apps or commands with the privileges of a different user without switching environments.

Sudo Vulnerability (CVE-2019-18634)

The newly discovered privilege escalation vulnerability, tracked as CVE-2019-18634, in question stems from a stack-based buffer overflow issue that resides in Sudo versions before 1.8.26.
According to Vennix, the flaw can only be exploited when the “pwfeedback” option is enabled in the sudoers configuration file, a feature that provides visual feedback, an asterisk (*), when a user inputs password in the terminal.
To be noted, the pwfeedback feature is not enabled by default in the upstream version of sudo or many other packages. However, some Linux distributions, such as Linux Mint and Elementary OS, do enable it in their default sudoers files.

Besides this, if pwfeedback is enabled, the vulnerability can be exploited by any user, even without sudo permissions when a user is not listed in the sudoers file.
“The bug can be reproduced by passing a large input to sudo via a pipe when it prompts for a password,” Sudo developer Todd C. Miller explained. “Because the attacker has complete control of the data used to overflow the buffer, there is a high likelihood of exploitability.”

Check If You’re Affected and Apply Patches

To determine if your sudoers configuration is affected, you can run “sudo -l” command on your Linux or macOS terminal to find if the “pwfeedback” option is listed in the “Matching Defaults entries” output.
If enabled, you can disable the vulnerable component by changing “Defaults pwfeedback” to “Defaults !pwfeedback” in the sudoers configuration file to prevent the exploitation of the privilege escalation vulnerability.

Vennix responsibly reported the vulnerability to the maintainers of Sudo, who late last week released sudo version 1.8.31 with a patch.
“While the logic bug is also present in sudo versions 1.8.26 through 1.8.30 it is not exploitable due to a change in EOF handling introduced in sudo 1.8.26,” Miller said.
Apple has also released a patch update for macOS High Sierra 10.13.6, macOS Mojave 10.14.6, macOS Catalina 10.15.2 last week.
Joe Vennix last year reported a similar impact vulnerability in Sudo that could have been exploited by an attacker to run commands as root just by specifying the user ID “-1” or “4294967295.”

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How To Root a Nexus 5, 5X, 6, 6P, & 7 – Blog – 10 minute

There are many advantages to rooting a Nexus 5, 5X, 6, 6P, and 7 devices. Some of the benefits of rooting include getting access to exclusive root-only apps, having the ability to flash any customized version of the OS, and even overclock the CPU using a custom kernel.
Root lets you make changes to the very core system of your device making it a truly customizable phone you’ve ever had. There are certain procedures you need to follow to gain root on your devices.

Root a Nexus 5 & Install a Custom Recovery On It

Download CF-Root for Nexus 5 and extract it to your computer.
Turn off your phone.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power buttons at the same time to reboot into the bootloader mode.
Double-click on root-windows.bat in the CF-Root folder and it’ll root your device.
Once your device is rooted, head over to the Google Play Store and download and install TWRP Recovery app on your phone.
Tap on TWRP Flash on the main interface.

Select your device and TWRP file. Then tap on Flash to Recovery.

Reboot your device when the recovery is flashed.

You’re now rooted and have a custom recovery installed on your Nexus 5.
Root a Nexus 5X
Unlock Bootloader:

Go to Settings > Developer options and enable both USB debugging and OEM unlocking.

Connect your phone to your computer using a USB cable.
Download Fastboot and extract it to your computer.
Open the Fastboot folder, hold down Shift, right-click anywhere blank, and select Open command window here.

Then run the following command to reboot your phone.
fastboot reboot

Flash TWRP Recovery:

Root a Nexus 5X:

Download SuperSU and transfer it to your phone.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power buttons together. Then select Recovery from the menu on your screen.
Tap on Install and install the SuperSU file.

Root a Nexus 6
Unlock Bootloader:

Go to Settings > Developer options and turn on both OEM unlocking and USB debugging.

Connect your phone to your computer.
Download Fastboot and extract it.
Open the Fastboot folder, press and hold down Shift, right-click on any blank space, and select Open command window here.

Run the following command when Command Prompt launches.
adb reboot bootloader

Use the following command to unlock your bootloader.
fastboot oem unlock

Use the following to reboot your device.
fastboot reboot

Root a Nexus 6:

Download CF-Root for Nexus 6 and extract it to your computer.
Turn off your phone.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power buttons to boot into the bootloader mode.
Connect the phone to your computer.
Run the file named root-windows.bat from the CF-Root folder.
You’re now rooted.

Install a Custom Recovery:

Root a Nexus 6P
Unlock Bootloader:

On your phone, go to Settings > Developer options and turn on both OEM unlocking and USB debugging.

Plug-in your phone to your computer via a USB cable.
Download and extract Fastboot on your computer.
Launch the Fastboot folder, press and hold down Shift, right-click anywhere on your screen, and select Open command window here.

Use this command to reboot your phone.
fastboot reboot

Flash a Custom Recovery:

Download TWRP Recovery for Nexus 6P and save it to the Fastboot folder.
Enable USB debugging from Settings > Developer options on your phone.
Connect your phone to your computer.
Run the following command in Command Prompt.
adb reboot bootloader

Root a Nexus 6P:

Download SuperSU and move it to your phone.
Power off your phone.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power buttons to reboot into the bootloader mode. Then select Recovery.
Tap on Install and install the SuperSU file.

Root a Nexus 7 & Install a Custom Recovery On It

Download CF-Root for Nexus 7 and extract it.
Turn off your phone.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power.
Plug-in your phone to your computer.
Run root-windows.bat from the CF-Root folder.
You’re rooted.
Download and install TWRP Recovery app.
Tap on TWRP Flash.

Select your device and tap on Flash to Recovery.

Unroot a Nexus 5, 5X, 6, 6P, & 7

Download the factory image for your phone and extract it to your computer.
Turn off your Nexus device.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power buttons to reboot into the bootloader mode.
Launch a Command Prompt window in the unzipped factory image folder and run the following command:
flash-all.bat

Wait for it to flash the stock firmware on your phone.
When the firmware is flashed, run the following command to relock your phone’s bootloader.
fastboot oem lock

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How To Root a Pixel XL, 2, 2XL, 3, & 3XL – Blog – 10 minute

Rooting your Android device lets you access many of the features that aren’t provided by default on your device. These features include access to root-only apps, custom versions of the operating system, and custom recoveries to flash various files.
It’s totally possible to root a Pixel XL, 2, 2XL, 3, and 3XL to enjoy a number of root-only features on these devices. The following are the procedures on how to gain root on these phones.

Before you go ahead and perform the procedures, please keep in mind these will erase all the data on your device. Make sure to have a backup of your files before you root your device.
Root a Pixel XL & Install a Custom Recovery On It
This should work to root the Pixel XL running Android 9.0.

Download Fastboot and extract it on your computer.
Download both IMG and ZIP versions of TWRP recovery. Save the IMG version in the Fastboot folder where fastboot.exe is located and transfer the ZIP version to your phone.
Download the Magisk ZIP and transfer it to your phone.
On your phone, go to Settings > Developer options and enable both OEM unlocking and USB debugging.

Connect your phone to your computer using a USB cable.
Open the Fastboot folder, hold down Shift, right-click anywhere blank, and select Open command window here.

Type in the following command and hit Enter.
adb reboot bootloader

Enter the following command to unlock your bootloader.
fastboot flashing unlock

Confirm the prompt on your phone.
Type in the following command to reboot your device.
fastboot reboot

When your phone boots back up, go to Settings > Developer options and enable USB debugging. Then connect the phone to your computer.
Type in the following command replacing twrp.img with your IMG file name and hit Enter.
fastboot boot twrp.img

Unplug your phone from your computer.
Tap on Install and flash the TWRP ZIP version.

Select Reboot followed by Recovery.

Tap on Install and flash the Magisk ZIP file.
Tap on Reboot and select System.

Your phone is now rooted.
Root a Pixel 2 & 2XL & Install TWRP Recovery On It
There are three stages to root a Pixel 2 and 2XL.
Unlock Bootloader:

Download Fastboot and extract it to your computer.
Head to Settings > Developer options on your phone and enable USB debugging and OEM unlocking.

Plug-in your phone to your computer via a USB cable.
Open the Fastboot folder, hold down Shift, right-click anywhere blank, and select Open command window here.

Type in the following command and hit Enter.
adb reboot bootloader

Use the following command to unlock your bootloader.
fastboot flashing unlock

Confirm the prompt on your phone.

Install TWRP Recovery:

Download both ZIP and IMG versions of TWRP for Pixel 2 or Pixel 2 XL. Place IMG in the Fastboot folder and transfer ZIP to your phone.
Run the following command in a Command Prompt window to boot into TWRP. Make sure to replace twrp.img with your actual file name.
fastboot boot twrp.img

Once in TWRP, select Install and install the TWRP ZIP file.

Root a Pixel 2 & 2XL Using Magisk:

Download the factory image for your phone and extract it.
Transfer boot.img to your phone.
Install and open Magisk Manager on your phone.
Tap on Install followed by Install.

Choose Select and Patch a File.

Reboot your device with the following command.
fastboot reboot

Launch Magisk Manager and you’ll be rooted.

Root a Pixel 3 & 3XL & Install a Custom Recovery On It
Unlock Bootloader:

Open Settings > Developer options on your phone and turn on both USB debugging and OEM unlocking.

Connect the phone to your computer via a USB cable.
Download and extract Fastboot.
Open the Fastboot folder, hold down Shift, right-click anywhere blank, and select Open command window here.

Enter the following command and hit Enter.
adb reboot bootloader

Run the following command to unlock the bootloader.
fastboot flashing unlock

Follow the on-screen instructions on your phone.

Install TWRP Recovery & Gain Root Access:

Download both ZIP and IMG versions of TWRP for Pixel 3 or 3 XL. Transfer ZIP to your phone and keep IMG in the Fastboot folder.
Download Magisk Installer ZIP and copy it to your phone.
Enable USB debugging on your phone from Settings > Developer options.
Connect your phone to your computer over a wired connection.
Launch a Command Prompt window and enter the following command. Replace twrp.img with your IMG file name.
fastboot boot twrp.img

Tap on Install and install TWRP ZIP file.

Tap on Reboot followed by Recovery.

Tap on Install and flash the Magisk Installer ZIP file.
Tap on Reboot and then System.
Open the Magisk app and you should be rooted.

Unroot a Pixel XL, 2, 2XL, 3, & 3XL

Download the factory image for your phone and extract it to your computer.
Turn off your phone.
Press and hold down Volume Down and Power and your phone will boot into the bootloader mode.
Connect your phone to your computer via USB.
Open the factory image folder, hold down Shift, right-click anywhere blank, and select Open command window here.

Type the following command and ensure your phone appears in the list.
fastboot devices

Run the following command to flash the stock firmware.
flash-all.bat

Reboot your phone into the bootloader as described above.
Run the following command to relock the bootloader.
fastboot flashing lock

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How To Root a Galaxy S5, S6, S7, S8, S9 & S10 – Blog – 10 minute

Rooting your Galaxy devices including the Galaxy S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, and S10 allows you to explore many of the apps that are only available for rooted devices. These apps let you do much more than the traditional ones you get from the Play Store.
They let you remove bloatware, install custom ROMs, and even tweak core system features. Gaining root-access on your Samsung devices is a bit of a technical thing but it’s all worth doing.

Rooting a Samsung Galaxy S5, S6, S7, And S8
CF-Root is a popular way to root Galaxy S8, S7, S6, and S5. It’s available for a number of other Samsung phones as well. You need a Windows PC to use this tool to root phones.
Root a Galaxy S5, S6, S7, And S8 Using CF-Root

On your Samsung device, head over to Settings > About device and note down the Model number of your phone. You’ll use it to find the relevant root file for your device.

Head over to the CF-Root website and download the file that is for your specific phone model.
Right-click on the downloaded file and select Extract to.

Ensure your phone isn’t connected to your computer. Double-click on the Odin file you extracted from the archive and it’ll launch.
Click on the AP button on the main Odin interface and it’ll let you select a file to be flashed on your device.

Navigate to the CF-Root folder and select the file ending in .tar.md5.
Click on Options in the Odin and make sure Re-Partition is unchecked.

Turn off your phone. Press and hold down Volume Down, Home, and Power buttons together. Then press Volume Up to enter the download mode.
Plug-in your phone to your computer.
Click on Start in the Odin and wait for it to flash the file on your phone.

When the file is flashed, your phone should be rooted.
Install a Custom Recovery On The Galaxy S5, S6, S7, And S8
Once your phone is rooted, you’ll want to flash a custom recovery which will let you flash various custom files on your device. TWRP is a popular and feature-packed custom recovery available for Android and you’ll be installing it on your phone in the below section.

Head over to the TWRP recovery website and download the .tar version of the recovery for your phone.
Launch the Odin tool on your computer and ensure your phone is disconnected from your PC.
Click on AP in the tool and load the newly downloaded TWRP file. This is what you’re going to flash on your phone.

Click on Options and ensure Re-Partition is disabled.

Power off your device. Power it on by pressing Volume Down, Home, and Power buttons simultaneously. When prompted, press Volume Up to enter the download mode.
Connect your device to your computer using a cable.
Click on Start in the Odin and it’ll begin flashing TWRP recovery on your phone.

It’ll let you know when the recovery is flashed on the phone. Then press the Volume Up and Power buttons at the same time to reboot into the newly installed custom recovery mode.
Rooting And Installing a Custom Recovery On The Samsung Galaxy S9

Head to Settings > Developer options and enable OEM unlock.
Download Odin and TWRP for your phone and save them to your PC.
Launch Odin, click on AP, and load the TWRP .tar file in it.

Turn off your phone. Reboot it into the download mode by pressing Volume Down, Home, and Power buttons together. Hit Volume Up when prompted.
Connect your phone to your computer and click on Start in the Odin.

When the recovery mode appears, select Wipe followed by Format Data and type yes.
Tap on Reboot followed by Recovery to reboot into the recovery.
Download both encryption disabler and root file and copy them to your phone.
Tap on Install in the recovery and install the disabler zip file.

Tap on Install again and flash the root file.
Hit Yes in the prompts you get on your screen and continue.

Your phone should now be rooted.
Rooting And Installing a Custom Recovery On The Samsung Galaxy S10

Head to Settings > Developer options and turn on OEM unlocking.
Turn off your phone.
Press and hold down Home and Volume Down buttons and connect your phone to your PC.
Press the Volume Up button and let your bootloader unlock.
Head into Settings > Developer options and ensure OEM unlocking is enabled and is greyed out.
Download the stock firmware for your phone and extract it on your computer.
Copy the .tar file from the firmware folder over to your phone’s storage.
Download and install the Magisk Manager app on your phone.
Launch the app and tap on Install followed by Install.

Tap on Select and Patch a File.

Select the .tar file you earlier copied to your phone to be patched.
Move the patched file from your Downloads folder to your computer.
Launch Odin, click on AP, and load the patched .tar file.

Turn off your device, press and hold down Volume Down, Home, and Power buttons. Connect the phone to your computer and hit Start in the Odin.
When it’s flashed, press Volume Up and Power button and select wipe data/factory reset from the stock recovery menu.

Reboot your phone, launch Magisk Manager, and you should be rooted.
Use the TWRP recovery app to flash a custom recovery on your phone.

Unroot a Samsung Galaxy S5, S6, S7, S8, S9, And S10

Download the stock firmware for your phone and Odin to your computer.
Extract files from both the archives and launch Odin.
Load appropriate files in various tabs in Odin.

Power off your device, press and hold down Volume Down, Home, and Power buttons, hit Volume Up, and you’ll be in download mode.
Connect your phone to your computer and hit Start in the Odin.
Your phone is now unrooted.

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Root Insurance valuation hits $3.65 billion in latest round led by DST Global and Coatue – gpgmail


Root Insurance,  lang=”EN”>an Ohio-based car insurance startup that uses smartphone technology to understand individual driver behavior, said Monday it has raised $350 million on a $3.65 billion valuation in a Series E funding round. 

The amount of the round was reported last month, citing anonymous sources. This official announcement fills in the remaining details, including that DST Global and Coatue led the funding round. Existing investors Drive Capital, Redpoint Ventures, Ribbit Capital, Scale Venture Partners, and Tiger Global Management all participated in this round, along with several new investors, according to the company.

The car insurance company, founded in 2015, has now raised $523 million with an additional $100 million in debt financing. The funding will be used to scale up in the 29 U.S. states where it currently operates and expand into new markets. The additional capital will also be used to develop new product lines, Root said.

The company said last year it planned to be in all 50 states and Washington, D.C., by the end of 2019. 

“Root is transforming auto insurance, the largest property and casualty insurance market in the U.S., by leveraging technology and data to offer consumers lower prices, transparency, and fairness,” Tom Stafford, managing partner of DST Global, said in a statement.

Root provides car insurance to drivers. The company has differentiated itself by using individual driver behavior along with other factors to determine the premium customers pay.

Drivers download the Rootmobile app and take a test drive that typically lasts two or three weeks. Root provides a quote that rewards good driving behavior and allows customers to switch their insurance policy. Customers can purchase and manage their policy through the app.

Root has said its approach allows good drivers to save more than 50 percent on their policies compared to traditional insurance carriers. The company uses AI algorithms to adjust risk and sometimes provide discounts. For example, a vehicle with an advanced driver assistance system that it deems improves safety might receive further discounts.

The company’s business model has attracted customers. Root wrote more than $187 million in insurance premiums in the first six months of 2019, 824% growth over the same period in 2018.


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