Monash Uni infosec staff find gaping security hole in Palo Alto Networks gear – Security- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Palo Alto Networks has issued patches for a critical authentication bypass in several of its enterprise security products that was reported to the security vendor by two Monash University infosec staff.
The flaw, discovered by cybersecurity systems analyst Salman Khan and systems engineer Cameron Duck at Monash University, rates 10 out of 10 on the Common Vulnerabilities Scoring System (CVSS) version 3, and is easy to exploit with no user interaction required.
“When Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) authentication is enabled and the ‘Validate Identity Provider Certificate’ option is disabled (unchecked), improper verification of signatures in PAN-OS SAML authentication enables an unauthenticated network-based attacker to access protected resources,” the security vendor wrote in its advisory.
Multiple versions of the Palo Alto’s PAN-OS running on the company’s firewall, gateway, virtual private networking and access products are affected by the flaw.
Upgrading to PAN-OS versions 8.1.15, 9.0.9 and 9.1.3 fixes the authentication bypass vulnerability.
The United States government cyber command advised users to patch all their Palo Alto Networks devices immediately, warning that overseas nation-state sponsored hackers would likely try to exploit the vulnerability.

Please patch all devices affected by CVE-2020-2021 immediately, especially if SAML is in use. Foreign APTs will likely attempt exploit soon. We appreciate @PaloAltoNtwks’ proactive response to this vulnerability.
https://t.co/WwJdil5X0F
— USCYBERCOM Cybersecurity Alert (@CNMF_CyberAlert) June 29, 2020
If it’s not possible to immediately patch against the vulnerability, Palo Alto Networks said configuring the SAML authentication with a Certificate Authority (CA) Identity Provider Certificate, along with enabling validation of the credential, can be used as a complete mitigation for the vulnerability.
If SAML is not used for authentication, the bypass bug can’t be exploited, Palo Alto Networks said.
For now, the security vendor is not aware of any attempts at exploiting the vulnerability.
Attempts at exploiting the vulnerability can be logged by systems, but Palo Alto Networks said it can be difficult to distinguish between valid and malicious logins or sessions.
Unusual user names or source internet protocol addresses found in system logs are indicators of compromise, Palo Alto Networks warned.

Tempemail , Tempmail Temp email addressess (10 minutes emails)– When you want to create account on some forum or social media, like Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, TikTok you have to enter information about your e-mail box to get an activation link. Unfortunately, after registration, this social media sends you dozens of messages with useless information, which you are not interested in. To avoid that, visit this Temp mail generator: tempemail.co and you will have a Temp mail disposable address and end up on a bunch of spam lists. This email will expire after 10 minute so you can call this Temp mail 10 minute email. Our service is free! Let’s enjoy!

Down the rabbit hole: how QAnon conspiracies thrive on Facebook | Technology – Blog – 10 minute

In early May, QAnon braced for a purge. Facebook had removed a small subset – five pages, six groups and 20 profiles – of the community on the social network, and as word of the bans spread, followers of Q began preparing for a broader sweep.
Some groups changed their names, substituting “17” for “Q” (the 17th letter of the alphabet); others shared links to back-up accounts on alternative social media platforms with looser rules.
More than just another internet conspiracy theory, QAnon is a movement of people who interpret as a kind of gospel the online messages of an anonymous figure – “Q” – who claims knowledge of a secret cabal of powerful pedophiles and sex traffickers. Within the constructed reality of QAnon, Donald Trump is secretly waging a patriotic crusade against these “deep state” child abusers, and a “Great Awakening” that will reveal the truth is on the horizon.

QAnon evolved out of the baseless Pizzagate conspiracy theory, which posited that Hillary Clinton was running a child sex ring out of a Washington DC pizza restaurant, and has come to incorporate numerous strands of rightwing conspiracy mongering. Dedicated followers interpret Q’s cryptic messages in a kind of digital scavenger hunt. Despite the fact that Q’s prognostications have reliably failed to come true, followers rationalize the inaccuracies as part of a larger plan.
Q’s initial commentary on the Facebook bans was concise: “Information Warfare,” Q posted on the website 8kun. Two days later, in a post that included a collage of dozens of news headlines about the takedowns, Q went further, speculating that there had been a “coordinated media roll-out designed to instill ‘fear’” in believers and dissuade them from discussing QAnon on social media. “When do you expend ammunition?” Q wrote. “For what purpose?”
The anticipated purge never came. Instead, QAnon groups on Facebook have continued to grow at a considerable pace in the weeks following the takedown, with several adding more than 10,000 members over 30 days.
A Guardian investigation has documented:

More than 100 Facebook pages, profiles, groups, and Instagram accounts with at least 1,000 followers or members each dedicated to QAnon.

The largest of these have more than 150,000 followers or members.

In total, the documented pages, groups and accounts count more than 3m aggregate followers and members, though there is likely significant overlap among these groups and accounts.

These groups and pages play a critical role in disseminating Q’s messages to a broader audience and in recruiting more believers to the cult-like belief system, researchers say.
“Facebook is a unique platform for recruitment and amplification,” said Brian Friedberg, a senior researcher at the Harvard Shorenstein Center’s Technology and Social Change Project who has been studying QAnon for years. “I really do not think that QAnon as we know it today would have been able to happen without the affordances of Facebook.”

Suggested QAnon groups on Facebook. Composite: Eric Pratt/The Guardian
Moreover, Facebook is not merely providing a platform to QAnon groups. Its powerful algorithms are actively recommending them to users who may not otherwise have been exposed to them.
The Guardian did not initially go looking for QAnon content on Facebook. Instead, Facebook’s algorithms recommended a QAnon group to a Guardian reporter’s account after it had joined pro-Trump, anti-vaccine and anti-lockdown Facebook groups. The list of more than 100 QAnon groups and accounts was then generated by following Facebook’s recommendation algorithms and using simple keyword searches. The Instagram accounts were discovered by searching for “QAnon” in the app’s discovery page and then following Instagram’s algorithmic recommendations.
Receiving QAnon recommendations from Facebook does not appear to be that uncommon. “Once I started liking those pages and joining those groups, Facebook just started recommending more and more and more and more, to the point where I was afraid to like them all in case Facebook would flag me as a bot,” said Friedberg. Erin Gallagher, a researcher who studies social media extremism, said she was also encouraged to join a QAnon group by Facebook, soon after joining an anti-lockdown group.
Facebook’s own internal research in 2016 found that “64% of all extremist group joins are due to our recommendation tools”, the Wall Street Journal reported, primarily through the same “Groups you should join” and “Discover” algorithms that promoted QAnon content to the Guardian. “Our recommendation systems grow the problem,” the internal research said.

I really do not think QAnon as we know it today would have been able to happen without the affordances of Facebook

Brian Friedberg

Facebook did not directly respond to questions from the Guardian about its policy considerations around QAnon content. “Last month, we took down accounts, Groups, and Pages tied to this conspiracy theorist movement for violating our policies,” a company spokesperson said in a statement. “We also remove Groups and Pages that violate other policies from recommendations and demote in search results. We’re closely monitoring this activity and how our policies apply.”
The company also claimed that “all of the Pages” and “the vast majority of Groups” documented by the Guardian had been removed from recommendation algorithms prior to the Guardian’s query. The company did not provide evidence for this claim, which is contradicted by screenshots of pages and groups appearing in recommendations that were taken in May. The Guardian also continued to receive recommendations to join additional QAnon groups after its initial query to Facebook.
Asked about this discrepancy, Facebook said that the pages and groups in question had been marked as “non-recommendable” as of 8 April 2020 for violations of policies against clickbait, viral misinformation and hate speech, but that a page or group can be restored to eligibility for recommendations if its behavior improves for several months.
Over the course of reporting this article – about one month – the aggregate membership of the documented groups and pages grew from 2.75m to more than 3m, or approximately 8.5%. Groups and pages that the Guardian had documented to have been promoted through Facebook’s recommendation algorithms grew 19.9%. One page that appeared in recommendations – “We are ‘Q’” – saw its following grow nearly 60%, from about 24,000 to about 38,000 over the month – despite the page not having posted any new content since February.
To Friedberg, the window for Facebook to act on QAnon may have already passed. “I’m starting to wonder if we’re just waiting for the next shoe to drop – another act of violence,” he said. “That seems to be what the platforms wait for, and that in and of itself is terrifying.”
A ban that stuck
While QAnon thrives on Facebook, another social media site took timely and decisive action against it. Nearly two years ago, Reddit, the link-sharing network of interest-based message boards, carried out a site-wide purge of QAnon – and made it stick.
Reddit had been central to the development of the QAnon movement, which began in October 2017 with the emergence of “Q” on 4chan, the anarchic image board that has served as a launching pad for memes and internet culture but also racist extremism and harassment campaigns. Q, whose cryptic messages and predictions claimed to be based on a high-level government security clearance, quickly decamped from 4chan to the even more extreme 8chan, where believers could read Q’s latest “crumbs” directly from the source.
Q went briefly silent in 2019 when 8chan was forced offline in the wake of the El Paso massacre, but re-emerged on the new site founded by 8chan’s owners, 8kun.
Anonymous internet posters claiming to be high-level government officials are not entirely uncommon; in recent years, other so-called “anons” have emerged with claims that they were revealing secrets from inside the FBI or CIA. But Q is the first such figure to have achieved such a broad audience and real-world political influence. This is largely due to the activism of three dedicated conspiracy theorists who latched on to Q’s posts in the early days, according to an investigation by NBC News. These activists worked to develop a mythology and culture around QAnon and cultivated an audience for it on mainstream social media platforms.

David Reinert holds up a ‘Q’ while waiting to see Donald Trump at a rally on 2 August 2018 in Wilkes Barre, Pennsylvania. Photograph: Rick Loomis/Getty Images
Reddit was significantly easier to use for the kind of crowd-sourced research and interpretation that forms the core of participation in QAnon, and the site was host to a large pool of potential recruits, such as the 1.2m members of the subreddit r/conspiracy. It had also long enjoyed and at times even earned a reputation as one of the danker cesspools of the social web, for years tolerating communities known as “subreddits” dedicated to sharing non-consensual sexualized images of women or advocating rape.
But the violent anger of adherents to QAnon crossed the line for Reddit in less than a year. On 12 September 2018, citing its ban on content that “incites violence, disseminates personal information, or harasses”, the company banned 18 QAnon subreddits, the largest of which had more than 70,000 members.
Social media bans are often difficult to maintain, but Reddit’s move was uncommonly effective. Today, QAnon remains unwelcome on Reddit, with the few subreddits that address it dedicated to either debunking the theory or providing support to people who have lost friends and family members to QAnon.
‘Taking the red pill’
QAnon did not disappear after Reddit pulled the plug, however. Instead, its believers moved on to other platforms, including YouTube, Twitter, Discord and – crucially – Facebook. At the time of the Reddit ban, one of the largest closed Facebook groups dedicated to QAnon, “Qanon Follow the White Rabbit” had 51,000 members, according to NBC News. Today that group has grown to more than 90,000 members.
And while YouTube and Twitter have played an important role in providing a broadcast platform for QAnon content, the specific structures provided by Facebook are uniquely suited to the participatory “work” of engaging with QAnon. Facebook also provides QAnon with an even larger pool of potential recruits than Reddit could, especially for the somewhat older, Evangelical crowd that has proven susceptible to QAnon’s messaging.
Will Partin, a research analyst with Data & Society, and Alice Marwick, a professor of communication at the University of North Carolina, describe QAnon as a “dark participatory culture”, which is to say that it is a community that takes advantage of the infrastructure of social networking sites to bring disparate people together and foster discussion, collaboration, research and community, but directs those energies toward anti-democratic, regressive and even violent ends.
“Everything about our research suggests that these people are not irrational; they’re hyper-literate, even if they’ve come to beliefs that are empirically inaccurate ,” Partin said. “That’s partly because they have a fundamentally different epistemology to judge what is true and false.”

A man in the crowd holds a QAnon sign as crowds gather to attend Donald Trump’s campaign rally in Las Vegas, Nevada, 21 February 2020. Photograph: Patrick T Fallon/Reuters
The digital architecture of Facebook groups is also particularly well-suited to QAnon’s collaborative construction of an alternative body of knowledge, Friedberg said. The platform has created a ready-made digital pathway from public pages to public groups to private groups and finally secret groups that mirrors the process of “falling down the rabbit hole or taking the red pill”.
“You can mechanically take those steps,” he said. “Very few of the contemporary Q-following base actually need to engage with 8chan at all.”
To ban or not to ban
While Facebook has policies banning hate speech, incitement to violence and other types of content that it considers undesirable on a family- and advertiser-friendly platform, QAnon does not fit neatly into any single category.
Much of what is shared in QAnon groups on Facebook is a mix of pro-Trump political speech and pro-Trump political misinformation. Memes, videos and posts are often bigoted and disconnected from reality, but not all that different from the content that is shared in non-QAnon, pro-Trump Facebook groups.
The pages and groups that were removed in early May violated the company’s ban on “coordinated inauthentic behavior” – ie the kind of digital astroturf tactics that Russian operatives used to support Trump’s presidential campaign in 2016. Those rules are aimed at operations in which actors make false representations about their identities in order to mislead people – a description that could encompass Q – but Facebook only applies its policy to deceptive behavior that occurs on its platform, not on 8kun.

When a common sense of what is real and what is correct breaks apart, it becomes nearly impossible to reach a democratic consensus

Will Partin

To enact a blanket ban akin to Reddit’s under its current rubric of rules, Facebook would likely have to designate QAnon as a “dangerous organization” – the category it uses to ban both terrorist and hate groups and any content published in support or praise of them. QAnon is hardly an organization, though as a movement it has certainly caused harm and could be considered dangerous.
There are innate societal and individual harms to convincing people of a version of reality that is simply false, as QAnon does, said Data & Society research analyst Will Partin. “When a common sense of what is real and what is correct breaks apart, it becomes nearly impossible to reach a democratic consensus.”
And QAnon followers’ enthusiasm for misinformation is not confined to politics; as the coronavirus pandemic took hold, the groups became a hotbed for medical misinformation – something Facebook has claimed to be working hard to combat. Analyses by Gallagher, the social media researcher, and the New York Times demonstrated how QAnon groups fueled the viral spread of “Plandemic”, a 26-minute video chock full of dangerously false information about Covid-19 and vaccines.
Facebook’s algorithms appear to have detected this synergy between the QAnon and anti-vaccine communities. Several QAnon groups are flagged with an automated warning label from Facebook that reads, “This group discusses vaccines” and encourages users to go to the website of the Centers for Disease Control for reliable information on health.
It appears that anti-vaccine propagandists are also taking notice, and attempting to capitalize. Larry Cook, the administrator of Stop Mandatory Vaccination, one of the largest anti-vaxx Facebook groups, has begun incorporating QAnon rhetoric into the medical misinformation he peddles, as well as making explicit invitations to QAnon believers to join his group.
Cook has begun referencing the “deep state” and stoking fear of forced vaccination and “FEMA camps”.
“I have discussed the concept many, many, many times that vaccines destroy our connection to God and that we are in a spiritual war with Principalities of Darkness that have a death wish for our children, and humanity at large,” he wrote in one QAnon-inflected post. (Cook also uses the site to aggressively promote his various products and a subscription-only platform for “medical freedom patriots”.)

A prominent anti-vaccine propagandist appeals to QAnon followers. WWG1WGA is a QAnon catchphrase. Photograph: Facebook
But the potential for damage from QAnon goes well beyond. For those individuals who truly believe in the QAnon narrative, the crimes of the “cabal” are so grievous as to make fighting them a moral imperative. “They’re talking about a group of people who are operating our government against our wishes and they’re molesting and torturing children and destroying our society,” said Joseph Uscinski, a professor of political science who studies conspiracy theories. “It’s an incitement to violence.”
Indeed, there have been numerous incidents of real-world violence linked to QAnon, and in May 2019, the FBI identified QAnon as a potential domestic terrorism threat in an intelligence bulletin. While anti-government conspiracy theories were not new, the bulletin stated, social media was allowing them to reach a larger audience, and the online narratives were determining the targets of harassment and violence for the small subset of individuals who crossed over into real-world action.
Despite this, Uscinski is skeptical of the idea that kicking QAnon off Facebook would help anyone. He regularly polls conspiracy theories and consistently finds that QAnon is “one of the least believed things” out there, well below belief in theories about Jeffrey Epstein’s death, anti-vaccine hoaxes, and Holocaust denialism. Uscinski also cautions against overly exoticizing the QAnon narrative, noting that “most of the component parts of QAnon have been around forever”, with parallels in the Satanic Panic of the 1980s or the plot of Oliver Stone’s JFK. And he’s concerned about the free speech implications of censorship by tech platforms.
“It’s a potentially dangerous belief; it’s very disconnected from reality; I don’t really think we want more people getting into it,” he said of QAnon. “Do the internet companies bear some responsibility? Yes. Would it be better if they took it down? Probably. Does that take care of it? No.”
Partin said that he generally favored Facebook taking a “more aggressive approach to moderation”, including addressing the recommendation algorithms and trying to reduce the spread of misinformation out of dedicated conspiracy communities and into the mainstream.
“If Facebook flipped a switch and every Q post disappeared tomorrow, that probably would be harmful for QAnon,” he said. “But there is resiliency built in. Getting deplatformed is harmful, but the idea that it would somehow make this disappear is fanciful.”
Friedberg worried that it may already be too late. “Facebook should have taken action on this a long, long time ago, and the longer that they wait, the more deeply entrenched in mainstream politics this becomes,” he said. Facebook has been reluctant to appear in any way biased against Republicans, and if (or when) QAnon reaches Congress, it will be even more politically difficult for Facebook to take a stand.
In May, Republican voters in Oregon nominated a QAnon believer to run for the US Senate in November. Another QAnon supporter, Marjorie Taylor Greene, is likely to be elected to the House of Representatives after she came first in a Republican primary in a conservative Georgia district on 11 June.

“In some ways, the second that Trump officially acknowledges QAnon is the second it becomes a partisan political issue that Facebook may not be able to take action against,” said Friedberg. “We’re watching a normalization process of these conspiracies, and I think the beast that is Facebook was really the answer to this all along.”
Indeed, Trump himself has repeatedly retweeted QAnon accounts on Twitter, which believers take as confirmation of their alternate reality. And on 20 June, just before Trump’s campaign rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, Trump’s adult son Eric posted a QAnon meme on his Instagram account. Eric Trump deleted the image relatively quickly, but not before screenshots spread across the Facebook Q-sphere.
“So Eric Trump posted a pic with a ‘Q’ in the imagery,” an administrator of one of the larger QAnon groups wrote. “The pic has been taken down but the message was received!”

Tempemail , Tempmail Temp email addressess (10 minutes emails)– When you want to create account on some forum or social media, like Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, TikTok you have to enter information about your e-mail box to get an activation link. Unfortunately, after registration, this social media sends you dozens of messages with useless information, which you are not interested in. To avoid that, visit this Temp mail generator: tempemail.co and you will have a Temp mail disposable address and end up on a bunch of spam lists. This email will expire after 10 minute so you can call this Temp mail 10 minute email. Our service is free! Let’s enjoy!

‘Big hole in the value chain’: one third of adtech costs unattributable finds Isba- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

The Incorporated Society of British Advertisers (Isba) has released the results of an in-depth probe into the adtech supply chain, finding that publishers receive only 51% of advertiser spend. One-third of supply chain costs were unattributed, which may force transparency from the convoluted process going forward.
The Isba Programmatic Supply Chain Transparency Study, carried out by PwC, attempted to map the programmatic advertising supply chains and learn where the value is being extracted. Data was collected from 15 advertisers, eight agencies, five demand side platforms (DSPs), six supply side platforms (SSPs) and 12 publishers for the study, accounting for approximately £0.1 billion of UK programmatic media spend.
Isba has called for an immediate investigation into the “unknown delta” that is extracting one-third of supply chain spend, a move which will require industry collaboration, and for standardisation across “a range” of contractual and technological areas.
PWC said there was a lack of understanding and consistency among the adtech suppliers, particularly legal data sharing, storage, and uniformity, particularly between SSPs and DSPs.
“These challenges and complexities do not serve the principal interests of advertisers or publishers,” it said.
It comes at a time when publishers need to squeeze more value from the chain with ad revenue diminished as a result of the coronavirus pandemic. The industry is also ramping up awareness of over-zealous brand safety keyword blocking; ‘coronavirus’ blocks alone, Newsworks estimated, will cost the UK news industry £50m in lost inventory in just three months.
Phil Smith, director general of Isba, said: “It is the first time anywhere in the world that an attempt has been made to map a system which is not capable of being audited. This process has been led by our members, advertisers who proactively sought to understand a problem and find a way forward. The challenge now is for industry to come together, as they will in the new taskforce, to drive industry standards and create transparent supply chains, to allow companies and consumers to benefit properly from online advertising.”
Graeme Adams, head of media at BT Group, took part in the investigation and branded the lost cash “a big hole in the value chain”. While he admitted that “digital display is an effective sales driver for us,” he acknowledged that every penny needs to be accounted for, which requires more openness and transparency. “If not, we will cut back and reshape our trading approaches.”
Jon Mew, chief executive of the IAB, added: “Programmatic advertising is complex, but it is not a dark art and we shouldn’t lose sight of the valuable role it plays in supporting our open, ad-funded web.” Again, he pointed to collaboration to “shine a light” on each stage of the chain.
Nigel Gwilliam, director of media affairs at The IPA, proposed Jicwebs as “the obvious body to facilitate this collaboration”.
You can access the study here.

Tempemail , Tempmail Temp email addressess (10 minutes emails)– When you want to create account on some forum or social media, like Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, TikTok you have to enter information about your e-mail box to get an activation link. Unfortunately, after registration, this social media sends you dozens of messages with useless information, which you are not interested in. To avoid that, visit this Temp mail generator: tempemail.co and you will have a Temp mail disposable address and end up on a bunch of spam lists. This email will expire after 10 minute so you can call this Temp mail 10 minute email. Our service is free! Let’s enjoy!

Scientists Detect First-Ever Collision Between Black Hole and Neutron Star


This site may earn affiliate commissions from the links on this page. Terms of use.

Scientists around the world celebrated the first confirmed detection of gravitational waves several years ago, a discovery that resulted in Nobel prizes for Rainer Weiss, Kip Thorne, and Barry Barish in 2017. Since then, The American LIGO and Italian Virgo instruments have spotted many more waves from the collision of pairs of black holes and neutron stars. Now, scientists believe they’ve spotted a black hole gobbling up a neutron star for the first time ever. 

Gravitational waves were predicted in general relativity, but no one had been able to verify their existence before LIGO came online. While these ripples in spacetime come from cataclysmic events like colliding black holes, the waves are extremely faint. That’s why LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) and Virgo use a technique called laser interferometry. They bounce lasers off of reflectors at the end of long tubes — they’re 2.4 miles (4 kilometers) in the case of LIGO. The beams cancel each other out if they bounce back unaltered, but gravitational waves cause tiny fluctuations that produce a signal. LIGO can detect movements as small as a ten-thousandth the charge diameter of a proton. 

It was clear from the start that the LIGO-Virgo detection on August 14th would be an interesting one. At first, it looked like the objects were in the so-called “mass gap,” meaning they were too small to be black holes and too large to be neutron stars. However, human analysis eventually confirmed the event, known as S190814bv, was almost certainly the collision of a black hole and neutron star. 

Gravitational Waves

A simulation of black holes spiraling toward a collision and throwing off gravitational waves.

This is the last type of gravity wave collision scientists have been looking for, having already seen several signals from pairs of black holes and neutron stars. It’s not a sure thing yet, although the initial analysis says S190814bv is a neutron star-black hole merger with greater than 99 percent confidence. The larger of the two objects is well within black hole territory, but the smaller one is a bit south of three solar masses. Between one and two solar masses, and the object is a neutron star. Above three, it may be a black hole. 

Scientists are anxious to spot a neutron star colliding with a black hole because it could reveal much about these super-dense star remnants. The gravitational waves and any electromagnetic component of S190814bv could narrow down the dimensions of the neutron star, which would be a hugely important discovery in nuclear physics. We have only a basic understanding of neutron stars — their structure pushes even the best current models of particle physics to the breaking point. This distant gravitational event could be the first step in improving that understanding.

Now read:




10 minutes mail – Also known by names like : 10minemail, 10minutemail, 10mins email, mail 10 minutes, 10 minute e-mail, 10min mail, 10minute email or 10 minute temporary email. 10 minute email address is a disposable temporary email that self-destructed after a 10 minutes. https://tempemail.co/– is most advanced throwaway email service that helps you avoid spam and stay safe. Try tempemail and you can view content, post comments or download something

Astronomers Spot Mysterious Flash From Our Galaxy’s Supermassive Black Hole


This site may earn affiliate commissions from the links on this page. Terms of use.

You don’t usually think of a supermassive black hole as something that can go unnoticed, but many of these interstellar monsters are quite placid. For instance, Sagittarius A* (pronounced “Sagittarius A Star”) in the center of our own Milky Way galaxy. It’s usually very dim, but astronomers recently saw Sagittarius A* flare up — in fact, it just got brighter than we’ve ever seen it. 

Astronomers have detected many active galactic nuclei like quasars around the universe, but Sagittarius A* is on the quiet side despite being four million times more massive than the sun. It’s a bright X-ray radio source due to the heating of matter in the black hole’s accretion disk, but it’s not active enough to be bright across most of the electromagnetic spectrum.

In May of this year, UCLA’s Tuan Do spotted an unusual pulse from Sagittarius A*. That was so unexpected that at first, he believed the flash came from a star in the same part of the sky called S0-2. However, it became apparent over the course of about two and a half hours that the source was variable and was, in fact, Sagittarius A*. At its peak, Sagittarius A* was 75 times brighter than usual in infrared. 

Scientists have been watching Sagittarius A* for decades, but no one was sure what to make of it for much of that time; it was just a strong X-ray source deep in the Milky Way. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, studies of objects near Sagittarius A* demonstrated it had a strong gravity explained best by a supermassive black hole. Today, the evidence for Sagittarius A* as the gravitational center of the Milky Way is quite solid. It’s under constant observation with instruments like the WM Keck Observatory in Hawaii used by the UCLA team. 

Do and his team have speculated on several causes for the spike in brightness. Sagittarius A* itself would not emit radiation detectable on Earth, but objects near it being torn to shreds by gravitational shear would. It’s possible a large volume of matter fell into the black hole’s gravity well, and that caused the flash. The team points to two possibilities. First, the aforementioned S0-2, which is in a long 16-year orbit of Sagittarius A*. It made its closest approach yet last year, coming within 17 light hours of the event horizon. A part of the star may have been pulled away during that pass. There’s also a gas cloud called G2 that swing around Sagittarius A* in 2014. There were no cosmic fireworks at the time, but we could be seeing a delayed reaction.

More observatories should have data from the same time period, so they could shed light on the nature of the flash in the coming months.

Now read:




10 minutes mail – Also known by names like : 10minemail, 10minutemail, 10mins email, mail 10 minutes, 10 minute e-mail, 10min mail, 10minute email or 10 minute temporary email. 10 minute email address is a disposable temporary email that self-destructed after a 10 minutes. https://tempemail.co/– is most advanced throwaway email service that helps you avoid spam and stay safe. Try tempemail and you can view content, post comments or download something

General Relativity Still Holds Up in New Analysis of a Supermassive Black Hole


This site may earn affiliate commissions from the links on this page. Terms of use.

While quantum physics continues to raise new questions concerning Einstein’s theory of general relativity, a recent analysis of a giant black hole at the center of the Milky Way demonstrates that general relativity continues to prove itself under more extreme conditions than initially expected.

Space.com spoke with Andrea Ghez, an astronomy professor at the University of California Los Angeles and co-lead author of a research paper that investigated gravitational redshift occurring near the massive black hole known as Sagittarius A* (abbreviated as Sgr A*), about what the results mean for Einstein’s theory:

Einstein’s right, at least for now. Our observations are consistent with Einstein’s theory of general relativity. However, his theory is definitely showing vulnerability. It cannot fully explain gravity inside a black hole, and at some point we will need to move beyond Einstein’s theory to a more comprehensive theory of gravity that explains what a black hole is.

Gravitational redshift is a phenomenon caused by gravity over distance, similar to how the Doppler effect changes characteristics of a wave in motion relative to its observer.  We’re more accustomed to noticing Doppler shifts in audio, like when a police siren’s pitch changes as it speeds past our ears, but the same effect can be seen in other types of waves—such as those produced by photons.  While relative position and motion create Doppler redshift, gravity can also produce redshift when it causes a reduction in frequency in blue light.

Image credit: Keck/UCLA Galactic Center Group

While we’ve proven gravitational redshift on Earth, it remained unclear if the same phenomenon occurred with black holes. Ghez’ team tracked the star S0-2 in its complete orbit in three dimensions using multiple telescopes in different locations. Combined with measurements taken over the last 24 years, the scientists were able to show redshifting as S0-2 passed near Sgr A*’s extreme gravitational field.

Tracking S0-2 is just the beginning of the investigation into gravitational redshift. Sgr A* already provides other candidates to track but future results still may take a while. Out of 3,000 stars near Sgr A*, S0-102 has the shortest orbit of 11.5 years.  Nevertheless, future efforts now have more of an expected outcome and it will require thorough analysis to discover additional detail about one of the universe’s biggest mysteries.

Einstein’s theory of general relativity predates the discovery of black holes, which makes these results all the more impressive. While the party won’t last forever, it’s amazing to see how far an idea can reach across spacetime.

Top image credit: NASA

Now read:




10 minutes mail – Also known by names like : 10minemail, 10minutemail, 10mins email, mail 10 minutes, 10 minute e-mail, 10min mail, 10minute email or 10 minute temporary email. 10 minute email address is a disposable temporary email that self-destructed after a 10 minutes. https://tempemail.co/– is most advanced throwaway email service that helps you avoid spam and stay safe. Try tempemail and you can view content, post comments or download something