What you missed in cybersecurity this week – gpgmail


There’s not a week that goes by where cybersecurity doesn’t dominates the headlines. This week was no different. Struggling to keep up? We’ve collected some of the biggest cybersecurity stories from the week to keep you in the know and up to speed.

gpgmail: This was the biggest iPhone security story of the year. Google researchers found a number of websites that were stealthily hacking into thousands of iPhones every week. The operation was carried out by China to target Uyghur Muslims, according to sources, and also targeted Android and Windows users. Google said it was an “indiscriminate” attack through the use of previously undisclosed so-called “zero-day” vulnerabilities.

Hackers could steal a Tesla Model S by cloning its key fob — again

Wired: For the second time in two years, researchers found a serious flaw in the key fobs used to unlock Tesla’s Model S cars. It’s the second time in two years that hackers have successfully cracked the fob’s encryption. Turns out the encryption key was doubled in size from the first time it was cracked. Using twice the resources, the researchers cracked the key again. The good news is that a software update can fix the issue.

Microsoft’s lead EU data watchdog is looking into fresh Windows 10 privacy concerns

gpgmail: Microsoft could be back in hot water with the Europeans after the Dutch data protection authority asked its Irish counterpart, which oversees the software giant, to investigate Windows 10 for allegedly breaking EU data protection rules. A chief complaint is that Windows 10 collects too much telemetry from its users. Microsoft made some changes after the issue was brought up for the first time in 2017, but the Irish regulator is looking at if these changes go far enough — and if users are adequately informed. Microsoft could be fined up to 4% of its global annual revenue if found to have flouted the law. Based off 2018’s figures, Microsoft could see fines as high as $4.4 billion.

U.S. cyberattack hurt Iran’s ability to target oil tankers, officials say

The New York Times: A secret cyberattack against Iran in June but only reported this week significantly degraded Tehran’s ability to track and target oil tankers in the region. It’s one of several recent offensive operations against a foreign target by the U.S. government in recent moths. Iran’s military seized a British tanker in July in retaliation over a U.S. operation that downed an Iranian drone. According to a senior official, the strike “diminished Iran’s ability to conduct covert attacks” against tankers, but sparked concern that Iran may be able to quickly get back on its feet by fixing the vulnerability used by the Americans to shut down Iran’s operation in the first place.

Apple is turning Siri audio clip review off by default and bringing it in house

gpgmail: After Apple was caught paying contractors to review Siri queries without user permission, the technology giant said this week it will turn off human review of Siri audio by default and bringing any opt-in review in-house. That means users actively have to allow Apple staff to “grade” audio snippets made through Siri. Apple began audio grading to improve the Siri voice assistant. Amazon, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft have all been caught out using contractors to review user-generated audio.

Hackers are actively trying to steal passwords from two widely used VPNs

Ars Technica: Hackers are targeting and exploiting vulnerabilities in two popular corporate virtual private network (VPN) services. Fortigate and Pulse Secure let remote employees tunnel into their corporate networks from outside the firewall. But these VPN services contain flaws which, if exploited, could let a skilled attacker tunnel into a corporate network without needing an employee’s username or password. That means they can get access to all of the internal resources on that network — potentially leading to a major data breach. News of the attacks came a month after the vulnerabilities in widely used corporate VPNs were first revealed. Thousands of vulnerable endpoints exist — months after the bugs were fixed.

Grand jury indicts alleged Capital One hacker over cryptojacking claims

gpgmail: And finally, just when you thought the Capital One breach couldn’t get any worse, it does. A federal grand jury said the accused hacker, Paige Thompson, should be indicted on new charges. The alleged hacker is said to have created a tool to detect cloud instances hosted by Amazon Web Services with misconfigured web firewalls. Using that tool, she is accused of breaking into those cloud instances and installing cryptocurrency mining software. This is known as “cryptojacking,” and relies on using computer resources to mine cryptocurrency.


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Malicious websites were used to secretly hack into iPhones for years, says Google – gpgmail


Security researchers at Google say they’ve found a number of malicious websites which, when visited, could quietly hack into a victim’s iPhone by exploiting a set of previously undisclosed software flaws.

Google’s Project Zero said in a deep-dive blog post published late on Thursday that the websites were visited thousands of times per week by unsuspecting victims, in what was described as a “indiscriminate” attack.

“Simply visiting the hacked site was enough for the exploit server to attack your device, and if it was successful, install a monitoring implant,” said Ian Beer, a security researcher at Project Zero.

He said the websites had been hacking iPhones over a “period of at least two years.”

The researchers found five distinct exploit chains involving 12 separate security flaws, including seven involving Safari, the in-built web browser on iPhones. The five separate attack chains allowed an attacker to gain “root” access to the device — the highest level of access and privilege on an iPhone. In doing so, an attacker can gain access to the device’s full range of features normally off-limits to the user. That means an attacker can quietly install malicious apps can be installed to spy on an iPhone owner without their knowledge or consent.

Google said based off their analysis, the vulnerabilities were used to steal a user’s photos and messages, and track their location in near-realtime. The “implant” could also access the user’s on-device bank of saved passwords.

The vulnerabilities affect iOS 10 through to the current iOS 12 software version.

Google privately disclosed the vulnerabilities in February, giving Apple only a week to fix the flaws and roll out updates to its users. That’s a fraction of the 90 days typically given to software developers, giving an indication of the severity of the vulnerabilities.

Apple issued a fix six days later with iOS 12.1.4 for iPhone 5s and iPad Air and later.

Beer said it’s possible other hacking campaigns currently in action.

The iPhone and iPad maker has a good rap on security and privacy matters. Recently the company increased its maximum bug bounty payout to $1 million for security researchers who find flaws that can silently target an iPhone and gain root-level privileges without any user interaction. Under Apple’s new bounty rules — set to go into effect later this year — Google would’ve been eligible for several million dollars in bounties.

A spokesperson for Apple did not immediately comment.


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Apple expands its bug bounty, increases maximum payout to $1M – gpgmail


Apple is finally giving security researchers something they’ve wanted for years: a macOS bug bounty.

The technology giant said Thursday it will roll out the bug bounty program to include Macs and MacBooks, as well as Apple TV and Apple Watch, almost exactly three years after it debuted its bug bounty program for iOS.

The idea is simple: you find a vulnerability, you disclose it to Apple, they fix it — and in return you get a cash payout. These programs are wildly popular in the tech industry as it helps to fund security researchers in exchange for serious security flaws that could otherwise be used by malicious actors, and also helps fill the void of bug finders selling their vulnerabilities to exploit brokers, and on the black market, who might abuse the flaws to conduct surveillance.

But Apple had dragged its feet on rolling out a bug bounty to its range of computers. Some security researchers had flat-out refused to report security flaws to Apple in absence of a bug bounty.

At the Black Hat conference in Las Vegas, head of security engineering and architecture Ivan Krstić announced the program to run alongside its existing iOS bug bounty.

Patrick Wardle, a security expert and principle security researcher at Jamf, said the move was a “no brainer.”

Wardle has found several major security vulnerabilities and dropped zero-days — details of flaws published without allowing the companies a chance to fix — citing the lack of a macOS bug bounty. He has long criticized Apple for not having a bug bounty, accusing the company of leaving a void open for security researchers to sell their flaws to exploit brokers who often use the vulnerabilities for nefarious reasons.

“Granted, they hired many incredible talented researchers and security professionals — but still never really had a transparent mutually beneficial relationship with external independent researchers,” said Wardle.

“Sure this is a win for Apple, but ultimately this a huge win for Apple’s end users,” he added.

Apple said it will open its bug bounty program to all researchers and increase the size of the bounty from the current maximum of $200,000 per exploit to $1 million for a zero-click, full chain kernel code execution attack with persistence — in other words, if an attacker can gain complete control of a phone without any user interaction and simply by knowing a target’s phone number.

Apple also said that any researcher who finds a vulnerability in pre-release builds that’s reported before general release will qualify for up to 50% bonus on top of the category of vulnerability they discover.

The bug bounty programs will be available to all security researchers beginning later this year.

The company also confirmed a Forbes report, published earlier this week, saying it will give a number of “dev” iPhones to vetted and trusted security researchers and hackers under the new iOS Security Research Device Program. These devices are special devices that give the hackers greater access to the underlying software and operating system to help them find vulnerabilities typically locked away from other security researchers — such as secure shell.

Apple said that it hopes expanding its bug bounty program will encourage more researchers to privately disclose security flaws, which will help to increase the protection of its customers.

Read more:
Apple restricts ads and third-party trackers in iPhone apps for kids
New book looks inside Apple’s legal fight with the FBI
Apple has pushed a silent Mac update to remove hidden Zoom web server
Many popular iPhone apps secretly record your screen without asking
Apple rebukes Australia’s ‘dangerously ambiguous’ anti-encryption bill
Apple Card will make credit card fraud a lot more difficult


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Flawed office printers are a silent but serious target for hackers – gpgmail


You probably don’t think too much about your humble office printer. But they’re a prime target for hackers, if any of the dozens of vulnerabilities found by security researchers are anything to go by.

The latest research by the NCC Group just revealed at the Def Con security conference shows just how easy of a target office printers can be.

Think about it: office printers at some of the largest organizations in finance, government and tech all print corporate secrets — and classified material — and often keep a recorded copy in their memory. Printers are also complicated devices — more so than most people realize — with multiple internet-connected components, networking protocols, printer languages and fonts, and connected apps and devices, all of which have vulnerabilities.

No wonder they’re a target; office printers are a treasure trove of sensitive data. And because they often come with a web-based interface or an internet connection, they have a huge attack surface, making them easy to hack.

In the course of three months’ work, researchers Daniel Romero and Mario Rivas found and reported 45 separate vulnerabilities from six of the largest printer makers — HP, Lexmark, Brother, Xerox, Ricoh, and Kyocera — which could have allowed attackers to, among other things, siphon off copies of print jobs to an attacker controlled server.

They also showed they could hijacked and enlist vulnerable printers into botnets — used to overload websites with junk internet traffic. Or, with little effort, they could brick the printers completely, potentially causing havoc for business operations.

“Suppose a criminal developed a work that sought to compromise and permanently corrupt every vulnerable printer; this would severely impact the world’s ability to print, and could be catastrophic for affected sectors that rely heavily on printed documents, such as healthcare, legal and financial services,” said Romero and Rivas.

Not only that, printers can also be used as a way to gain a “method of persistence on a network,” the researchers said, allowing them to gain deeper access into a corporate network from an easy point of entry.

Because in most cases printers aren’t protected by anti-malware services like desktops and laptops, a malicious attacker could gain a permanent backdoor on the devices, giving them long-term access to a target corporate network.

When the researchers reported the bugs, they received mixed responses from the companies. Although every printer maker has since fixed the bugs they found, the researchers said some printer makers didn’t have a way to disclose the vulnerabilities they found, leaving them stranded and unable to make contact with some companies for more than two months.

Lexmark, which fixed nine vulnerabilities and issued its own security advisories, received a special mention for its “mature” vulnerability disclosure effort.

HP also issued a security advisory noting the five bugs it received and later fixed.

But the researchers said there are “probably more” bugs ready to be found. “We stopped searching after a few vulnerabilities,” they said. What makes matters worse is that most printer makers share code from one device to another, likely vastly expanding the number of devices affected by a single vulnerability.

Maybe next time, think before you print.


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