Udemy Class Review: Ubuntu for Beginners


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The operating system market today is dominated by Microsoft and various versions of Windows to such an extent that some people still don’t even know there are alternatives. One of the most popular is Ubuntu, a free OS based on Linux. If you’ve never used Ubuntu, you will likely encounter difficulties performing relatively simple tasks such as installing programs. Not to fear though: The Ubuntu For Beginners course from Udemy aims to teach you exactly what you need to know to get up and running on Ubuntu.

Course Overview

Starting up this lecture series you’ll want to skip straight to section 2. The first section is aptly titled “Course Overview” and will list off the topics that will be covered in the course, but there aren’t any real lessons here. Section 2 explains what Ubuntu is and some of the pros and cons of using it as opposed to other operating systems. An important distinction of Ubuntu is there are versions with long-term support with regular software updates, which is uncommon in the Linux world.

Next, the lecturer will instruct you on how to obtain a copy of Ubuntu and install it. This really isn’t all that different from installing Windows from a flash drive, but for true beginners, this could prove useful. This is followed with some information about using a virtual machine, which will be helpful for students unfamiliar with that software.

About a quarter of the way through the course you will start to be taught how to use the OS itself. First up is installing applications using the terminal, followed by the commands to uninstall applications. The lecturer then teaches you how to do these tasks using the graphical interface, and then he dives into additional lessons involving the terminal interface such as managing accounts.

Large portions of the next few sections are spent working closely with the terminal, so get used to this above image. The lecturer will teach you how to perform numerous tasks inside of the terminal and focuses on its use for the remainder of the course. Although this is beneficial and likely where new Ubuntu users could use the most instruction, there is a notable lack of information on how to use the graphical user interface.

Conclusion

Evaluating the course as a course is somewhat difficult. The course is well organized and the individual lessons feel well-paced and informative. The high volume of tasks you will learn to perform from inside Ubuntu would undoubtedly prove useful if you plan to use the operating system on a regular basis. But the course as a whole feels like a lot to absorb in just one sitting and far more than you need to just use the OS on a basic level.

I can’t really fault the course for providing too much information, though, and if you want to learn how to use Ubuntu I would recommend it, but I’d also suggest taking the course slowly over an extended period. Students will likely benefit the most from taking just the first half of the course and then taking time to use the operating system and familiarize yourself with the software. The remaining lessons could then be taken as needed, which I feel will ultimately make the course easier and more effective for most students. If you are interested in trying this course, you can get it now from Udemy for $18.99.

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Microsoft Will Publish exFAT Spec, but Linux Devs Aren’t Happy


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Microsoft has announced that it will publish the technical implementation details of the exFAT standard and allow support to be integrated into the Linux kernel at a future date. This is a major change for Microsoft, which once weaponized its FAT patents. While Samsung has published a GPL driver for exFAT back in 2013, patent encumbrances have prevented the driver from being distributed as part of Linux.

That can now change, if the driver is included in future versions of the Linux kernel. But as Phoronix noted, discussion on the mailing list has been critical of the pre-existing driver code, which was tagged for inclusion in the kernel following the Microsoft announcement. Christoph Hellwig, a longtime Linux developer, called it “a pile of crap,” saying:

It basically is a reimplementation of fs/fat/ not up to kernel standards with a few indirections thrown in to also support exfat. So no amount of work on this codebase is really going to bring us forward. Instead someone how can spend a couple days on this and actually has file systems to test it just needs to bring the low-level format bits over to our well tested fs/fat codebase instead of duplicating it.

Greg Kroah-Hartman, who maintains the Linux -stable branch, defended the decision to take the code into staging, despite its current condition, writing: “I know the code is horrible, but I will gladly take horrible code into staging. If it bothers you, just please ignore it.”

Stephen J. Vaughan-Nichols writes that the move could be read as a partial answer to a request made by Bradley Kuhn when Microsoft joined the Open Invention Network (OIN)’s patent non-aggression pact last year. After noting that Microsoft had specifically shaken down Linux product vendors for licensing fees related to exFAT in the past, he called on Microsoft to “submit to upstream the exfat code themselves under GPLv2-or-later.” Microsoft has not taken this step. Instead, it is publishing the specification and supports the work to create a Linux driver that will add exFAT support to the kernel at a future time. While Microsoft is supporting this effort, it expects the actual code submission to be performed by others.

As for why Microsoft is taking this step, at this specific point in time, the company may have provided the answer last year, at an Open Source Summit in Europe. SJVN quotes Stephen Walli, the principle program management for Azure, as saying:

Open source changed everything. Customers have changed. Fifteen years ago, a CIO would have said, ‘we have no open source, they would have been wrong, but that’s what they thought.’ Now, CIOs know open source’s essential … Microsoft has always been a company by, of, and for developers. At this point in history, developers love open source.

Opposition to the move or concerns about whether Microsoft intends something surreptitiously skulduggerous seem muted in most of the OSS community. Microsoft has been attempting to prove its open-source bona fides for years, even going so far as to integrate a Bash shell and Linux kernel into Windows 10. In the past, there have been bitter standardization fights between Microsoft and members of the open-source community, including the fight between Office Open XML proponents (Microsoft) and the OpenDocument Format (ODF) over a decade ago.

Today, there’s no sign of such disputes. Since Satya Nadella took over at Microsoft, the company has been markedly more friendly towards open source products. Whether that reflects Microsoft’s willingness to acknowledge the objective popularity of open-source software or a new front in a crafty, long-term war to sabotage those products is likely in the eye of the beholder.

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Microsoft wants to bring exFAT to the Linux kernel – gpgmail


ExFAT, the Extended File Allocation Table, is Microsoft’s file system for flash drives and SD cards, which launched in 2006. Because it was proprietary, mounting these drives and cards on Linux machines generally involved installing additional software. Today, however, Microsoft announced that it is supporting the addition of exFAT to the Linux kernel and publishing the technical specifications for exFAT.

“It’s important to us that the Linux community can make use of exFAT included in the Linux kernel with confidence. To this end, we will be making Microsoft’s technical specification for exFAT publicly available
to facilitate development of conformant, interoperable implementations.”

In addition to wanting it to become part of the Linux kernel, Microsoft also says that it hopes that the exFAT specs will become part of the Open Invention Network’s  Linux definition. Once accepted, the code would benefit “from the defensive patent commitments of OIN’s 3040+ members and licensees,” the company notes.

Microsoft and Linux used to be mortal enemies — and some in the Linux community definitely still think of Microsoft as anti-open source. These days, though, Microsoft has clearly embraced open source and Linux, which is now the most popular operating system on Azure and, optionally, part of Windows 10, thanks to its Windows Subsystem for Linux. It’ll still be interesting to see how the community will react to this proposal. The aftertaste of Microsoft’s strategy of  “embrace, extend and extinguish” still lingers in the community, after all, and not too long ago, this move would’ve been interpreted as yet another example of this.


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IBM Open-Sources Power ISA, Shares CPU, OpenCAPI Reference Designs


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IBM has taken new steps to open the Power architecture further and expand access to its capabilities. Back in 2013, IBM launched the OpenPower Foundation to allow would-be customers to license IBM designs and collaborate with each other. Now, the company has open-sourced the entire Power ISA and contributed a softcore design to the effort, suitable for running on an FPGA. The OpenPower Foundation, which was founded back in 2013, will now become part of the Linux Foundation and the entire project will be overseen by that organization.

IBM has been turning towards open source as a method for reinvigorating its hardware business and stoking interest in its own ecosystem. In addition to open-sourcing the Power ISA, the company has also contributed designs for its Open Coherent Accelerator Processor Interface (OpenCAPI) and Open Memory Interface (OMI). These are the interface protocols that attach the CPUSEEAMAZON_ET_135 See Amazon ET commerce to the rest of the system, and they’re critical to making the total project work. OpenCAPI and OMI are both architecture-agnostic and could theoretically be adapted for usage in both x86 and Power systems, should vendors build compatible solutions.

Ken King, general manager of OpenPower at IBM, told Next Platform that the plan to open source the ISA had been a long time coming:

We started OpenPower six years ago because the industry was seeing the decline of Moore’s Law, and we were seeing the need for more powerful systems to support HPC, artificial intelligence, and data analytics. We needed to find other ways to drive system performance, and with limitations on the processor, the ability to integrate and innovate up and down the stack was becoming more critical. This led to things like NVLink with Nvidia, a close relationship with Mellanox on interconnects, and OpenCAPI for other devices, and we have seen some progress here.

But we are also seeing a shift in the industry, with companies moving to more open hardware. IBM opening up Power to the point where we would license the CPU RTL to others so they could design their own processors was limited in its effect because there were not that many people who wanted to spend many hundreds of millions of dollars – not for license fees, but for full development – to create their own high-end CPU. We did make some progress in opening up our reference designs, and there are over 20 vendors who are now making Power-based systems.

We are seeing interesting developments with the nascent RISC-V architecture, and hyperscalers are hiring their own chip designers and building their own CPUs and interconnects. They are getting into the hardware space, even if they are not going to be hardware vendors, to drive that performance.

OpenCapi-Roadmap

OpenCAPI roadmap.

Under the Linux Foundation, IBM and other members will vote on the future of the standard, including feature set expansions and new capabilities. IBM can continue to make changes to its own ISA for its own purposes, but all other modifications require a membership vote. Members are required to maintain compatibility with the base ISA. Permission to make a non-compliant change will require a unanimous vote. King has openly stated that he hopes Intel will be willing to explore the benefits of using OpenCAPI now that the standard is available in this method, leading to a convergence of support between OpenCAPI and CXL, Intel’s competing interconnect standard.

IBM is hoping that completely open-sourcing the ISA will spur adoption and development. There’s some reason for optimism. Another open-source ISA, RISC-V, has been generating many headlines and interest from various silicon vendors. Current RISC-V CPUs, however, are all low-end embedded hardware. In theory, Power might be an easier lift if its toolchains are more mature and better-featured.

“The opening of the Power ISA, an architecture with a long and distinguished history, will help the open hardware movement continue to gain momentum,” Mateo Valero, Director of Barcelona Supercomputing Center, told InsideHPC. “BSC, which has collaborated with IBM for more than two decades, is excited that IBM’s announcements today provide additional options to initiatives pursuing innovative new processor and accelerator development with freedom of action.”

Though it hasn’t spent much time in the limelight of late, Power was once a major challenger to Intel’s competing x86 architecture in the server world. In recent years, the OpenPower initiative has enjoyed support from a number of companies, with over 250 members as of 2016. Today, it still enjoys market share in the HPC space — the Summit and Sierra supercomputers are #1 and #2 in the world. The third machine is based on custom Sunway architecture. The highest-powered x86 computer is China’s Tianhe-2A, based on the Xeon E5-2692v2. There’s nothing stopping a company from taking Power into new markets (at least in theory), though it would be quite difficult to convince smartphone vendors to rally around Power as opposed to ARM. Still, open-sourcing the architecture can’t hurt its uptake effort.

We’d expect to see the most energy and excitement around Power in servers and HPC because that’s where the core of IBM’s efforts have historically been focused. But we wouldn’t be surprised to see the ISA popping up in other places, either.

Feature Image: IBM Power8 microprocessor 

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The ClockworkPi GameShell is a super fun DIY spin on portable gaming – gpgmail


Portable consoles are hardly new, and thanks to the Switch, they’re basically the most popular gaming devices in the world. But ClockworkPi’s GameShell is something totally unique, and entirely refreshing when it comes to gaming on the go. This clever DIY console kit provides everything you need to assemble your own pocket gaming machine at home, running Linux-based open-source software and using an open-source hardware design that welcomes future customization.

The GameShell is the result of a successfully Kickstarter campaign, which began shipping to its backers last year and is now available to buy either direct from the company, or from Amazon. The $159.99 ($139.99 as of this writing on sale) includes everything you need to build the console, like the Clockwork Pi quad-core Cortex A7 motherboard with integrated Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, 1GB of DDR3 RAM, but it comes unassembled.

You won’t have to get out the soldering iron – the circuit boards come with all components attached. But you will be assembling screen, keypad, CPU, battery and speaker modules, connecting them with included cables, and then installing them in the slick, GameBoy-esque plastic shell. This might seem like an intimidating task, depending on your level of technical expertise: I know I found myself a bit apprehensive when I opened the various boxes and laid out all the parts in front of me.

But the included instructions, which are just illustrations, like those provided by Lego or Ikea, are super easy to follow and break down the task into very manageable tasks for people of all skill levels. All told, I had mine put together in under an hour, and even though I did get in there with my teeth at one point (to remove a bit of plastic nubbin when assembling the optional Lightkey component, which adds extra function keys to the console), I never once felt overwhelmed or defeated. The time-lapse below chronicles my enter assembly process, start to finish.

What you get when you’re done is a fully functional portable gaming device, which runs Clockwork OS, a Linux-based open-source OS developed by the company. It includes Cave Storyone of the most celebrated indie games of the past couple of decades, and a number of built-in emulators (use of emulators is ethically and legally questionable, but it does provide an easy way to play some of those NES and SNES games you already own with more portability).

There’s a very active community around the GameShell that includes a number of indie games to play on the console, and tips and tricks for modifications and optimal use. It’s also designed to be a STEM educational resource, providing a great way for kids to see what’s actually happening behind the faceplate of the electronics they use everyday, and even getting started coding themselves to build software to run on the console. Loading software is easy, thanks to an included microSD storage card and the ability to easily connect via WiFi to move over software from Windows and Mac computers.

Everything about the GameShell is programable, and it features micro HDMI out, a built-in music player and Bluetooth support for headphone connection. It’s at once instantly accessible for people with very limited tech chops, and infinitely expandable and hackable for those who do want to go deeper and dig around with what else it has to offer.

Swappable face and backplates, plus open 3D models of each hardware component, mean that community-developed hardware add-ons and modifications are totally possible, too. The modular nature of the device means it can probably get even more powerful in future too, with higher capacity battery modules and improved development boards.

I’ve definitely seen and used devices like the GameShell before, but few manage to be as accessible, powerful and customizable all at once. The GameShell is also fast, has great sound and an excellent display, and it seems to be very durable with decent battery life of around three hours or slightly ore of continuous use depending on things like whether you’re using WiFi and screen brightness.


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GitHub gets a CI/CD service – gpgmail


Microsoft’s GitHub today launched the beta of a new version of GitHub Actions with full continuous integration and delivery (CI/CD) capabilities built right into the service. General availability is planned for November 13.

The company also today announced that it now has more than 40 million developers on its platform.

Ten months ago, GitHub launched Actions, its workflow automation platform. Developers could already take actions to trigger all kinds of events and use that to build custom CI/CD pipelines. At launch, the GitHub team stressed that Actions allowed for building these pipelines, but that it was a lot more than that. Still, developers were obviously quite interested in using Actions for CI/CD.

“Since we introduced GitHub Actions last year, the response has been phenomenal, and developers have created thousands of inspired workflows,” writes GitHub CEO Nat Friedman in today’s announcement. “But we’ve also heard clear feedback from almost everyone: you want CI/CD! And that’s what we’re announcing today.”

With this updated version of Actions, developers can now build, test and deploy their code on any platform and run their workflows in containers or virtual machines. Developers also can test multiple versions of their applications in parallel thanks to a new feature called “matrix builds,” which lets you, for example, test three different versions of Node.js on Linux, Windows and MacOS at the same time. Because GitHub Actions are defined in a basic YAML file, making those changes is only a matter of adding a few lines to the file.

Supported languages and frameworks include Node.js, Python, Java, PHP, Ruby, C/C++, .NET, Android and iOS. Actions is also integrated with the GitHub Package Registry.

As the application is built, you also get live logs streamed to the Action console, and it’s easy to link to any line in a log file to discuss issues with the rest of your team.

These new features are available for free during the beta and will remain free for all public repositories.

Actions for GitHub Enterprise Server will launch next year and will include a hybrid option that will allow you to keep the code in a private data center and still use GitHub to orchestrate the workflows.

“GitHub Actions is the democratization of CI/CD and software automation. Developers can write workflows reacting to any GitHub platform event and reference open-source GitHub Actions — reusable pieces of code — to supercharge their software lifecycle the same way they are used to writing application code,” said Max Schoening, GitHUb’s senior director of Product Design. “It truly is community-powered CI/CD with a pricing model that works for everyone.”

With this launch, GitHub is now also competing more directly with some of the CI/CD startups that have built businesses on top of the platform. That’s likely to create a bit of friction.

“GitHub has made a commitment to keeping their platform open to all partners, but only time will tell,” CircleCI CEO Jim Rose said in a statement. “Ultimately, developers are smart and will choose the best, most powerful tools available on the market, and we’re confident that that’s where CircleCI will continue to be. […] With more than nine years of data and experience on how teams move from idea to delivery, CircleCI is the leader in CI/CD and we are confident we have the best solution for developers.”

I expect that Rose’s comment will echo that of other CI/CD players, though it’s also worth noting, as Rose did, that Actions can be integrated with other continuous integration services to allow developers to trigger builds on their platforms. These providers can also make their own Actions available on GitHub.

“We see GitHub actions as complementary to what Codefresh does. It’s an additional way that users can leverage Codefresh to build robust pipelines in a scalable way. One interesting thing is that GitHub followed our lead in how they architected Actions. You can actually use GitHub actions as steps inside a Codefresh pipeline. So you see, we’re actually very aligned,” said Dan Garfield, the chief technology evangelist at CI/CD platform Codefresh. “Developers can find the Codefresh action right on GitHub!”

When I asked GitHub about this, Schoening provided the following statement: “GitHub and our community believe in choice and an open ecosystem. That is something we take seriously and build into everything we do. GitHub Actions lets developers integrate with all their existing tooling, mix and match new developer products, and hook into all parts of the software lifecycle, including existing CI/CD partners.”


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With the acquisition closed, IBM goes all in on Red Hat – gpgmail


IBM’s massive $34 billion acquisition of Red Hat closed a few weeks ago and today, the two companies are now announcing the first fruits of this process. For the most part, today’s announcement further IBM’s ambitions to bring its products to any public and private cloud. That was very much the reason why IBM acquired Red Hat in the first place, of course, so this doesn’t come as a major surprise, though most industry watchers probably didn’t expect this to happen this fast.

Specifically, IBM is announcing that it is bringing its software portfolio to Red Hat OpenShift, Red Hat’s Kubernetes-based container platform that is essentially available on any cloud that allows its customers to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

In total, IBM has already optimized more than 100 products for OpenShift and bundled them into what it calls “Cloud Paks.” There are currently five of these Paks: Cloud Pak for Data, Application, Integration, Automation and Multicloud Management. These technologies, which IBM’s customers can now run on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud Platform or IBM’s own cloud, among others, include DB2, WebSphere, API Connect, Watson Studio and Cognos Analytics.

“Red Hat is unlocking innovation with Linux-based technologies, including containers and Kubernetes, which have become the fundamental building blocks of hybrid cloud environments,” said Jim Whitehurst, president and CEO of Red Hat, in today’s announcement. “This open hybrid cloud foundation is what enables the vision of any app, anywhere, anytime. Combined with IBM’s strong industry expertise and supported by a vast ecosystem of passionate developers and partners, customers can create modern apps with the technologies of their choice and the flexibility to deploy in the best environment for the app – whether that is on-premises or across multiple public clouds.”

IBM argues that a lot of the early innovation on the cloud was about bringing modern, customer-facing applications to market, with a focus on basic cloud infrastructure. Now, however, enterprises are looking at how they can take their mission-critical applications to the cloud, too. For that, they want access to an open stack that works across clouds.

In addition, IBM also today announced the launch of a fully managed Red Hat OpenShift service on its own public cloud, as well as OpenShift on IBM Systems, including the IBM Z and LinuxONE mainframes, as well as the launch of its new Red Hat consulting and technology services.


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Google’s new version of Android Auto focuses on Assistant – gpgmail


Google is starting to roll out an updated version of its in-car platform Android Auto that aims to make it easier and safer for drivers to use.

The version, which was first revealed during Google I/O 2019, has a dark theme, new fonts and color accents, more opportunities to communicate with Google’s virtual assistant and the ability to fit wider display screens that are becoming more common in vehicles.

Android Auto, which launched in 2015, is not an operating system. It’s a secondary interface — or HMI layer — that sits on top of an operating system and brings the look and feel of a smartphone to the vehicle’s central screen. Rival Apple introduced its own in-car platform, Apple CarPlay, that same year.

Automakers, once hesitant to integrate Android Auto or Apple CarPlay into vehicles have come around. Today, Android Auto is available in more than 500 car models from 50 different brands, according to Android Auto product manager Rod Lopez.

Car owners with Android Auto support will start to see the new design over the next few weeks. However, updates will not be made to the standalone version of Android Auto, a smartphone app that gave users access to the platform even if their car wasn’t compatible to Android Auto. Google says it plans to “evolve” the standalone phone app from Android Auto to the Assistant’s new driving mode in the future.

Meanwhile, the in-car version features some important changes, notably more opportunities for drivers to use their voice — and not their hands — to interact with Android Auto. Users will notice the Google Assistant badge on Android Auto, that when tapped will provide information about their calendar, read the weather report or news.

3Android Auto Google Assistant Badge

Other new features include a new app launcher designed to let users access their favorite apps with fewer taps. A button on the bottom left of the screen launches this feature. Once deployed, users will see app icons with the most commonly used ones featured in the top row.

Android Auto has also improved its navigation, which is perhaps the most commonly used feature within the platform. Now, the navigation bar sits at the bottom of the display and allows users to manage multiple apps. This improvement means users won’t miss an exit or street while they’re listening to Spotify .

4Android Auto Media

The navigation feature also pops up as soon as the driver connects with Android Auto. If a route is already queued up on a phone, Android Auto will automatically populate the directions.

This latest version also has a new notification button — located on the bottom right corner — houses recent calls, messages and alerts. Drivers can tap the mic button or say ” “Hey Google” to have the Google Assistant help make calls, send messages and read notifications.

Google has also developed an operating system called Android Automotive OS that’s modeled after its open-source mobile operating system that runs on Linux. Instead of running smartphones and tablets, Google modified it so it could be used in cars. Polestar, Volvo’s standalone performance electric car brand, is going to produce a new vehicle, the Polestar  2, that has an infotainment system powered by Android Automotive OS.


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