Apple not dominant in any market, senior executive says – Hardware- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Apple, the target of EU antitrust investigations into key segments of its business, on Tuesday rejected accusations of market dominance, saying it competes with Google, Samsung and other rivals.
Earlier this month, the European Commission opened investigations into Apple’s App Store and mobile payment system Apple Pay, concerned about its role as a gatekeeper to its lucrative platform.
“We compete with a wide variety of companies, Google, Samsung, Huawei, Vivo, LG, Lenovo and many more,” Daniel Matray, head of Apple’s App Store and Apple Media Services, told a Forum Europe online event.
“In fact, Apple does not have a dominant position in any market, and we face strong competition in every category, in tablets, wearables, desktop and notebook computers, maps, music, payments, messaging, and more,” he said.
Matray defended Apple’s App Store, saying the same rules apply to all developers, large and small, with 85 percent of apps not required to pay a 30 percent fee to the company which is only valid for those which use its in-app payment service.
The EU is investigating whether this requirement and rules preventing developers from informing users of cheaper products elsewhere are anti-competitive.
It is also probing Apple’s terms and conditions on how its mobile payment service Apple Pay should be used in merchants’ apps and websites, and also the company’s refusal to allow rivals access to the payment system.
The EU investigations were prompted by a complaint by Swedish music streaming service Spotify and an e-book rival.
Matray said the App Store has boosted competition, rather than harmed rivals.
“In the nearly 12 years since the App Store debuted, the best measure of its success is the dynamism it has unleashed and the state of the app economy today,” he said.

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AEC looks to ditch all paper lists on polling day – Strategy – Hardware – Software- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Source: Australian Electoral Commission

The days of polling officials using massive paper sheets to mark off names on election day in Australia could be numbered. 
The Australian Electoral Commission has begun investigating the possibility of operating its electronic certified list (ECL) system at “100 percent of polling places” in the future.
It has issued a request for information to understand the cost of a polling place management solution, including hardware, to “facilitate the potential expansion of the ECL device fleet”.
The ECL system, which has been developed in-house, has been deployed at 16 electoral events, including the last three elections, since 2013.
It allows polling officials to “efficiently” search and mark off the names of voters on an electronic copy of the electoral roll using a laptop before handing out a ballot paper on election day.
The digital equivalent on the paper list also enhances the integrity of the voting process by ensuring that individuals don’t game polling stations, and vote only once.
According to the agency’s latest annual report, more than 4500 ECLs and more than 2700 printers were deployed at the 2019 election – more than three times as many as in 2016.
But while ECL use has increased to around nine percent of all polling places, AEC has been reluctant to provide devices at every polling place until now due to the high cost of doing so.
“Due to the high cost of establishing an ECL fleet, ECL devices have only been used in priority polling places – pre-poll, mobile teams and select marquee static polling places,” it said.
The limited lead time for a federal election is also a barrier, with the agency often only given 100 days to prepare for polling day.
“In the current-state operating model only 10 percent of issuing points utilise ECL; as such the majority of voters have a fully paper-based voting experience,” documents state.
However, the AEC is now looking to find “innovative ideas and approaches to a deployment and device management solution of portable devices” at more than 7000 polling places.
It comes just weeks after it went looking for additional staff to join the agency’s next generation ECL project and election systems modernisation program teams.
The agency expects that any ECL solution covering 100 percent of polling locations would include 58,000 ECL device and polling place management device packs and 17,490 printers.
The successful provider would be required to source a “fit-for-purpose fleet” at “short notice” and store, repurpose or dispose of the equipment when it is no longer needed.
However, it would also be scalable, so that other electoral events that require less devices such as byelections can also be catered to.
“The variation in event types and fleet requirements makes it difficult to find a cost-effective way of acquiring, managing and disposing of devices and printers,” RFI documents state.
“Leasing and disposing of devices and printers after each event is expensive; storing devices and printers between events has logistical, cost, and technology challenges.”
Other deployment options being considered by the agency range from a minimum of 16,700 devices, including 14,850 ECL devices with a printer, to 37,800 devices.
It has not given a timeframe for when it expects the solution will be introduced, though it likely to be after the next election in 2021 or 2022.
The agency’s current footprint consists of 2750 ECL devices with a printer and 1850 ECL devices without a printer.
The solution provider would also need to “ensure all devices connect to AEC services via a secure network”. 
At the last election, devices connected “to a private APN mobile broadband network using individual SIM cards within each ECL device.”
Submission to the polling place management solution RFI will close on 27 July.

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Third of advertisers may boycott Facebook in hate speech revolt | Technology – Blog – 10 minute

Almost a third of advertisers are considering joining a month-long boycott of Facebook as the social network struggles to convince advertisers that it is doing enough to fight hate speech on its platform.
The unprecedented corporate snub has been revealed in survey by the World Association of Advertisers, whose big-spending members control nearly $100bn (£81bn) in spending.
The survey showed that a third of the top 58 advertisers will, or are likely to, suspend advertising, while a further 40% are also considering doing so.
On Monday, Ford and Adidas announced their intention to halt all advertising on the platform, joining corporations including Honda, Verizon, Diageo and Unilever.
Others, including Starbucks and Coca-Cola, have paused all advertising on social media but stopped short of officially announcing support for the “Stop Hate for Profit” campaign, which is coordinating the Facebook boycott.
The boycott is also spreading outside the US. On Tuesday, Britvic, the owner of drinks brands including Fruit Shoot and Robinsons, said it was suspending all advertising on Facebook platforms next month, and called on the social media platform “to take stronger actions against harmful content and misinformation on its platform”.
VW said it was also joining the boycott, along with Honda Europe and Ford Europe. The French state-owned utility EDF, which owns EDF Energy and is the company behind the construction of the Hinkley Point C nuclear power plant, has also vetoed Facebook advertising.
A Ford spokesman said: “We are pausing all US and European social media advertising for the next 30 days to re-evaluate our presence on these platforms. The existence of content that includes hate speech, violence and racial injustice on social platforms needs to be eradicated.”
A Honda Europe spokesman added that the decision was “in alignment with our company’s values, which are grounded in human respect”.
Stephan Loerke, chief executive of the World Federation of Advertisers, told the Financial Times the advertising industry was starting to request big changes from social media platforms. “In all candour,” he said, “ it feels like a turning point.”
In an internal post on Monday reported by Axios, Microsoft revealed it had suspended all US spending on Facebook platforms in May, and had since expanded the move globally.
Like Starbucks, Microsoft has not publicly endorsed the wider campaign; in the internal messaging, its chief marketing officer, Chris Capossela, told colleagues: “Our experience tells us that the most impactful means to effect genuine, long-term change is through direct dialogue and meaningful action with our media partners, including the suspension of real marketing dollars.”
The “Stop Hate for Profit” boycott is promoted by a coalition of US-based non-profits and calls for companies to suspend their spending on the platform for the month of July.
However, many companies, including Microsoft, had already dropped their ad spend, while some, such as Unilever, have announced their intention to continue the boycott well past the end of July, until after the US election in November or beyond.
Some advertisers are additionally motivated by a desire to preserve “brand safety”, objecting to their promotional material appearing next to inappropriate content. Capossela of Microsoft, for instance, cited “hate speech, pornography, terrorist content, etc”, as examples that concerned his company.
Oil group BP told the Guardian it was also halting Facebook advertising in support of the Stop Hate for Profit campaign. A spokesperson said: “We believe it is critically important for all social media platforms to deploy improved controls to eliminate the distribution of content that is untrue, discriminatory, or intended to incite, raise fear, or fan hate.”
Last week, the Guardian revealed how Facebook’s own policies against the organised conspiracy movement QAnon were not being enforced.
More than 3 million users of some of the largest groups and pages are followers of the conspiracy, which spreads the gospel of the pseudonymous “Q”, who claims knowledge of a secret cabal of powerful paedophiles and sex traffickers conspiring to bring down the US president, Donald Trump.
In an interview on the BBC’s Today programme on Tuesday, Facebook’s UK head, Steve Hatch, was questioned about the fact that, on the day protests over the killing of George Floyd began, the top post in the US called racially motivated policing a “myth”.
“We have no tolerance on our platform for hate speech. Of course, it’s incredibly hard and upsetting to read that,” Hatch said, “but equally, whether it is directed at creating hate, and real world harm in particular … The way that we define real-world harm is if it’s going to create imminent risk to people.”
Pressed on whether nationwide race riots qualified as “real-world harm”, Hatch said: “The debates that we see around all of these topics are extremely challenging and can be very very wide-ranging.”
Hatch appeared on the programme to promote Facebook’s latest effort to tackle platform safety: a campaign running across Europe, the Middle East and Africa that encourages users to help “stamp out false news”.
Facebook users should consider three questions when reading news on the platform, the company says: “Where’s it from?”, “What’s missing?” And “How did you feel?”. The intention is to promote reliable sources that tell the whole story, without skewing the narrative to encourage a heated emotional response.
The campaign has already sparked further criticism for pushing the work of keeping Facebook safe on to users. “This campaign urges users of Facebook to ‘stop, think and check’,” said Nick Robinson on BBC Radio 4’s Today programme. “Why should Facebook’s users do something which a $500bn corporation refuses to do?”
Despite some of the world’s biggest advertisers signing on to support the boycott, Facebook’s overall revenue is unlikely to have taken a significant hit. The company generates most of its income from the so-called “long tail” – smaller advertisers who make up in number what they lack in individual spending.

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French is the Word for a Successful IT Career- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

If you’re a high school graduate who dreams of building a successful IT career locally or internationally, I have news for you: your multilingual abilities and soft skills open up exciting career opportunities.
It’s true that hard skills matter a lot; you must have excellent technical expertise to become a reputed specialist. Mastering English will help you to advance in most IT companies, but learning another foreign language, French, in particular, will propel you to new heights.
So, How’s your French?
Did you know that one in five IT companies in Moldova has total or partial foreign capital? This is a huge career opportunity for any young French-speaking IT specialist, as international companies are always on the lookout for bilingual specialists.

Launch your IT career with the “Information Technology – Filiere Francophone Informatique,” a study program powered by the Technical University of Moldova. Learn more by joining this online event!

During the event, former and current students will share how they decided to apply to this program, what were their challenges, and what their career opportunities are.

I know firsthand the benefits of learning another language. I graduated from the Technical University of Moldova, got a job as a developer, and climbed the ladder to become Practice Manager for an international tech company.
My job is exciting, with a lot of responsibility and plenty of career rewards. And I have myself to thank for the inspiration and the drive to learn French. Being bilingual has provided so many opportunities and the chance to do what I love in my own country.

How to Increase Your Chances of Professional Success
I learned French in school as a young boy, but it was when I joined UTM’s Information Technology –Filiere Francophone Informatique program that I realized I made a pretty smart move.

This special “student squad” had access to internships abroad
The program’s teachers were the best and very dedicated
As part of the “visiting professors” concept, French teachers from Canada or France traveled to Moldova regularly to share their knowledge about specific programming languages
The majority of classes – including our papers and exams – were in French
We were the only students at the university with their own classroom, where the IT community and Filiere Francophone Informatique graduates also occasionally gathered
I felt proud to be part of an elite program; my colleagues were smart and competitive
Discovering French culture broadened our perspective of the world

The reasons that made the Filiere Francophone Informatique appealing when I was in college from 2003-2007 are still valid today. And, participants receive even more perks for joining this special program: a diverse range of local and international internships, summer schools, and unique presentations by French specialists from international organizations.

The Importance of French in Business
Just like when I was in school, many students today study and work at the same time. Although classes were tough, I got my first job at a small Moldovan IT company during my second year of college. My role was to build websites using PHP. After more than a year, I felt it was time to look for a more challenging position.
I applied for a job at Pentalog because they had many French clients, and the projects were interesting. Plus, I knew French quite well!
Since 2007, when I got a PHP developer position (the second try was a success!), I took on all kinds of responsibilities: I was a Team Leader, Project Director, Scrum Master, and now, I’m a Practice Manager.
In my case, I’m sure that my French language skills were a bonus in both obtaining a job and advancing in my IT career. I connected with clients easily, communicated even the most challenging aspects of business, and last but not least, I enjoyed many business trips to France and other foreign countries.
French speakers have plenty of advantages for success:

French is spoken in 56 countries on 5 continents and is among the top 3 most useful languages for business after English and Chinese.
Statistics show that people entering the workforce with second language fluency can expect to earn 10 – 15% more than their peers.
Knowing a second language increases your value in the business world and gives you the ability to build relationships and network.
It sets you apart in a large pool of candidates and gives you value.
You can enjoy a rewarding international career in your homeland.
Bilinguals have more gray matter in their brain, which makes them smarter!

The next time someone asks what college you want to apply to, I’d be happy to know you chose “Information Technology – Filiere Francophone informatique.”
In the meantime, prepare your questions and I will address them during our online event.

The post French is the Word for a Successful IT Career appeared first on Pentalog.

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MTN Launches 5G Network – Everything You Need to Know | Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Image sourced from Pinterest.

MTN South Africa has launched its commercial 5G network, providing access to 100 sites across the country.
“Today, from MTN’s birthplace of South Africa, we are stepping up our digital revolution with the next generation of telecommunication technology, demonstrating to all South Africans that 5G is no longer just an idea. It is here, it works and it has the capacity to bring about exponential improvements to our economy, and to the lives of the people we serve,” says MTN SA CEO Godfrey Motsa during the company’s live-streamed launch event.
The network today covers specific parts of Johannesburg, Cape Town, Bloemfontein, Port Elizabeth, Durban and other smaller towns.
“Our 5G strategy has been years in the making and we are confident that we have built a strong foundation to grow and support our 5G ecosystem,” says Giovanni Chiarelli, MTN SA’s chief tech and information officer, quoted by Tech Central.

Chiarelli says that the launch of the network is due in part by ICASA’s allocation of temporary spectrum. The regulator had allowed certain telecoms additional spectrum in order to aid South Africans during the COVID-19 pandemic that has gripped the country tighter than any other in Africa.
“One of the key innovations driving the broad roll-out by MTN has been a strategic approach to dynamic spectrum sharing, as these deployments overcome the challenges of lack of dedicated 5G spectrum,” he says.
MTN’s 5G runs on four different spectrum bands
What is known as the “golden band.” At 3.5Ghz, MTN offers some of its fastest speeds and lowest latencies. The “ideal spectrum band” has been deployed in sites across Johannesburg, Cape Town and Bloemfontein.

2.1Ghz and 1.8Ghz at 35 sites:

In this band, MTN re-farms some 4G spectrum in order to offer both 4G and 5G spectrum on the same band at the same time. This allows for easier migration of network technology from LTE to 5G. Further, MTN can use existing spectrum assets in the absence of additional high spectrum demand.
This band has been deployed in sites in Johannesburg and Port Elizabeth.
With this band, MTN is set to cover smaller towns and rural areas. Due to its low-band frequency propagation, the telecom believes this will be ideal in such settings.
Small towns covered by MTN’s 700MHz 5G include Port Alfred, Hopetown, Virginia, Queenstown and Tsantsabane.
A high-frequency bandwidth that offers very fast speeds. Ideal for fixed-wireless 5G connectivity.
This solution has been deployed in Pretoria, Edenvale and Durban.
MTN partners with Emerge gaming
Since the advent of cloud game-streaming, the main drawback for platforms in South Africa was always connection speeds.
Most cloud-based gaming requires vast amounts of data to be sent very quickly to and from devices to ensure smooth and fun experiences. Now, MTN says that with its 5G network it can facilitate just that.
“Cloud gaming will do to gaming what video-on-demand has done to TV, it’s a complete gamechanger only this is a game-changer that will be delivered by 5G,” the company said during its launch event.
MTN SA partnered with Australia-based Emerge Gaming to demonstrate cloud game-streaming on a Huawei P40 Pro running on 5G spectrum during the live-stream.
On-stream, presenters played 2010’s Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II on mobile in an effort to show off the network’s data streaming capabilities. Though there were a few noticeable minor latency-bumps, the game seemingly ran smoothly.
The telecom also announced that it will begin to look into AR and VR, as well as high-definition streaming, AI and IoT all powered by its 5G network.
MTN’s 5G offerings
Sourced from MTN South Africa.
For 5G mobile, MTN is offering a range of 24-month to 36-month data plans priced between R499 ($28.88) to as much as R1599 ($92.54) per month.
Edited by Luis MonzonFollow Luis Monzon on TwitterFollow Tempemail on Twitter

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Mail.ru Group pays out over $1 million in bounties- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

“It’s not worth building a fence if it can be bypassed just two steps to the side”
Mail.ru Group is a bug bounty veteran; with a program that spans 6 years, paying out over $1 million in bounties and resolving 3465 valid reports, it knows all the tricks to getting the best out of their hackers. Mail.ru Group’s Information Security Technical Advisor, Vladimir Dubrovin, tells us why being flexible with scope is vital to his team’s successful bug bounty program. 
When we first started our program, only Mail, Cloud, and Calendar services were in scope, because almost every account across our services is bound to Tempemail. However, since the beginning, we have paid out for issues like RCE or SQLi that were out of scope — it’s not worth building a fence if it can be bypassed just two steps to the side. Now we cover every high severity issue that belongs to Mail.ru Group, without exclusions. In addition, we take the unusual step of officially rewarding hackers for disclosing vulnerabilities found in our partners’ systems. While there are legal implications in some countries that make it impossible, we have taken steps to make this a best practice. When Mail.ru Group makes agreements with new partner services, we outline in the contract that the service needs to be ready to receive reports from hackers and have a Service Level Agreement (SLA) for fixing security issues. It’s important that if those partner services are receiving any information about our users, we want them to be as secure as we are ourselves, so we accept those bugs into our bug bounty program and pay out for them. 
This is what I’ve learned from six years of working with hackers to secure Mail.ru Group:

Reward for what your business needs. Your scope can even include reports for fraud or account hijacking issues. The most important things to do for your program are respond quickly, fix issues and maintain communication with your hackers.
You can attract more bug hunters without raising bounty prices. Hackers are in this business for more than just money, so price increases can only get you so far. Hackers really respect companies that allow disclosure of findings and we have found it’s a great way to show you have a program worth spending time on because hackers can publicise their successes and this encourages other hackers to participate. 
Provide easy access to beta functionality. Rewards should match, or potentially supersede, released features. This way, you can ensure security is being built into the software development process, leading to a more secure product overall. 
You can offer researchers so much more than just money. We have offered grants for our top researchers where we pay them for their work whether they find a bug or not to keep them engaged with the program and looking for vulnerabilities. We have also incentivised hackers with promotional codes distributed offline and at physical events to attract new hackers. When we attend cybersecurity conferences, we offer some simple (and not so simple) hacking challenges for attendees at our booth. If you win, you get a promo code for $100-$200 for our bug bounty program. It works like this: if you receive a bounty for a report, you will automatically receive an additional $100-$200 as a bonus with the promo code. The effect of this is two-fold; we get additional activity from hackers who know that no matter what they find, they will earn an additional $100-200 from it and can measure how successful in-person engagement is at events. With this activity, we usually receive up to ten issues per 150 promo codes, including at least one critical issue.
I often get asked about how I measure success. I would say, focus on the number of critical reports and the time it takes from when the vulnerability is first reported to the point where it is verified, paid out and, ultimately, fixed. 

Looking forward, where is Mail.ru Group going next?
We are transitioning to a single account across all the services within the holding that will include Mail, VK.com, OK.ru – both social networking sites – and others. This is a massive challenge for us and of course we want to invite researchers to help us implement it in the most secure way, and will have plenty more opportunities for bug hunters. 
For more information, visit our page at https://hackerone.com/mailru.
 

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eCommerce Activity Reaches Record High – Offering Hope for Local Economy | Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Sourced from IOL.

eCommerce is said to be providing a ray of hope for South Africa’s local economy with transactions hitting a record high in May and June. And, while there will be some levelling off, DPO South Africa says the new love affair with digital commerce is unlikely to fade in coming months, offering some relief in an otherwise grim economy.
“The last weekend in May saw transactions per minute hit four times that of the busiest minute experienced during Black Friday last year. June was similar to May and we expect our monthly volumes for the rest of the year to settle at around 40 per cent higher than last year,” explains Peter Harvey, MD of DPO South Africa.
According to Harvey, the adoption of eCommerce should be seen as a very positive sign after the depressing financial metrics published over the past weeks.
The BankservAfrica Economic Transaction Index (BETI), calculated by Economists.co.za, which measures transactions between South Africa’s banks, has recently experienced its sharpest decline in history. The three months ending 31 May saw transactional value drop by 20% compared to the same period in 2019.

“Although the latest bank transactions numbers paint a grim picture, we believe the eCommerce transactional numbers prove that South Africans are still spending online and, with some innovative thinking, there is certainly room for optimism for local entrepreneurs,” says Harvey.
Harvey acknowledges the COVID-19 lockdown has catapulted digital commerce forward by at least five years, but also says it is part of a greater retail revolution which has been happening for some time.
“Years back all the focus was placed on the formal retail sector. However, we have seen a marked shift. Our partners in the broader payment space have confirmed that the informal sector, including our spaza shops and informal vendors, are fast approaching the same monthly revenues as the formal sector. And, while digital retail currently only accounts for a small percentage of the formal sector’s monthly trade, both the informal and digital sectors are the solid areas of growth opportunity which should be appealing to the savvy entrepreneur,” Harvey adds.
Historically, one of the biggest obstacles to transacting online for many consumers was the trust aspect of eCommerce.
“We think the launch of 3D Secure 2.0 will make a big difference. It offers a much better user experience coupled with a more secure authentication process, both of which will enhance the shopping experience. We also need the full support of all our issuing banks. Most are very happy to promote digital commerce when they issue debit or credit cards, but some, like Capitec, still make their customers jump through too many hoops before they are able to transact online. We hope this will change soon.”
Harvey believes the stellar performance of South African online businesses this year, as well as the signs that there is still room for growth, could offer the country an economic lifeline.
“The past three months have shown us that local consumers are ready to embrace digital business. This increased demand for digital offerings must now be met with a good supply. We have every confidence that the innovative and entrepreneurial flair of South Africans will shine through in the months to come.”

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YouTube bans David Duke and other US far-right users | YouTube- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

YouTube has banned some of the video site’s most notorious far-right users, including former Ku Klux Klan leader David Duke, “alt-right” figurehead Richard Spencer and libertarian “race realist” Stefan Molyneux, joining a wave of social media sites taking action against hate speech.
The company says the bans were handed down due to the creators’ repeated violation of YouTube’s policies against claiming that protected groups are “inferior”.
“We have strict policies prohibiting hate speech on YouTube, and terminate any channel that repeatedly or egregiously violates those policies,” a YouTube spokesperson said.
“After updating our guidelines to better address supremacist content, we saw a 5x spike in video removals and have terminated over 25,000 channels for violating our hate speech policies.”
In all, the company terminated six channels: the three personal accounts, as well as Spencer’s Radix organisation, and two channels belonging to far-right publication American Renaissance.
After long insisting that channels that preached white supremacy were within the rules provided they didn’t directly call for violence, YouTube began rewriting its guidelines in 2019. In June of that year, the company changed its hate speech policy to specifically prohibit “alleging that a group is superior in order to justify discrimination, segregation or exclusion based on qualities like age, gender, race, caste, religion, sexual orientation or veteran status”.
Those changes came after the site had already taken action against high-profile users who had been careless enough to cross the line. Alex Jones, host of InfoWars, was removed from the site in 2018.
Despite the changes, it took more than a year for the policy to result in the removal of the site’s most high-profile supremacists, while other notorious figures remain active on YouTube. EDL co-founder Stephen Yaxley-Lennon, known as Tommy Robinson, was “restricted” on the site in 2019, but is still able to upload videos for pre-existing subscribers, though his account is removed from search results.
The company’s action came the day after Twitch and Reddit both made surprise moves themselves. Reddit deleted more than 2,000 subreddits for repeated rules violations, including The_Donald, the notorious home of the US president’s most ardent fanbase. “To be clear, views across the political spectrum are allowed on Reddit – but all communities must work within our policies and do so in good faith, without exception,” the company’s CEO, Steve Huffman, wrote in a post announcing the policy change.
Livestreaming platform Twitch suspended the Trump campaign’s account for violating its policy against “hateful conduct”. “In line with our policies, President Trump’s channel has been issued a temporary suspension from Twitch for comments made on stream, and the offending content has been removed,” the company said.
All the companies have taken action as an advertising boycott targeting Facebook swells to include companies such as Starbucks, Unilever and Verizon. Coordinated by the Stop Hate for Profit campaign, the boycott prompted an extraordinary response from Mark Zuckerberg on Friday, who announced a raft of concessions against a backdrop of a 7% fall in Facebook’s stock price.

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How the Operating System Segment fits into the FACE architecture- Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

By Alex Wilson, Tempemail and Steven H. VanderLeest, Rapita
Overview
The Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE™) consortium will host their annual Technical Interchange Meeting and Exhibition in September 2020. Leading up to this event, Tempemail and Rapita Systems are providing some background on the FACE architecture with a focus on our “one stop shopping” ecosystem for Units of Portability (UoP) and the tools to test, integrate, and certify systems based on the FACE Technical Standard.
The US Department of Defense continues to push for the use of open architecture solutions as a means to get better avionics hardware into the field more quickly and at lower cost. One source of such solutions is the Future Airborne Capability Environment (FACE™) consortium, founded in 2010 to develop an open architecture technical standard as well as business models for implementing FACE standards in systems. The consortium is managed by the Open Group, and has members from government, education, and industry sectors.  Member organizations must be incorporated in the US and individual members must be US citizens, though the annual FACE Technical Interchange Meeting typically includes an exhibition that is open to all.  The publications released by the FACE Consortium are also publicly available and free to download.  There are currently 91 organizations and over 1,000 individuals with membership. The consortium sponsors four general working sessions a year, called the FACE F2F.  Volunteer members do the detailed work of the consortium through technical and business working groups overseen by a steering committee and advisory board.
One of the most significant products of the FACE consortium has been the development of a technical standard, which is currently at revision 3.0  According to the FACE website, “The FACE Technical Standard is the open avionics standard for making military computing operations more robust, interoperable, portable and secure. The standard enables developers to create and deploy a wide catalog of applications for use across the entire spectrum of military aviation systems through a common operating environment.”
In this first blog series, we will summarize the FACE architecture to illustrate how the Operating System Segment (OSS) provides a foundation to the other segments. Later blogs will explore the Tempemail OSS in more detail as well as the Rapita Systems tools that support validation and verification.
FACE Architectural Segments
The concept of the FACE standard is to provide a reference architecture based on segments, which can be composed to meet the final system requirements. Variations in the content of the segments, including application code, allows the system architect flexibility in designing and building the end system. FACE provides the logical interfaces between these segments to allow for portability and re-use. FACE Technical Standard (TS) V3 shows in Figure 1 how the segments are related:

The five segments are:
1)     Operating System Segment (OSS) – foundational services provided by an Operating System; we will cover this in more detail below.  The remaining four segments depend on the OSS and thus it is shown beneath the others in the diagram.
2)     I/O Services Segment (IOSS)– normalizes the interface to I/O devices
3)     Platform-Specific Services Segment (PSSS) – providesplatform services, such as data services, logging, health management and graphics (interface to GPU)
4)     Transport Services Segment (TSS) – provides communication services
5)     Portable Components Segment (PCS) –offers capability or business logic
Key to constructing the system are the interfaces between these segments defined by the FACE TS. For the OSS we are interested in the supported APIs, and these fit into different profiles. These are Security, Safety, and General Purpose.
• Security is most restricted and has a minimal set of Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) for high assurance applications.
• Safety profile is a superset of the security profile, with more APIs, and is intended for applications that require safety certification, this also has 2 further profiles, Base and Extended.
• General Purpose profile has most APIs and supports applications that do not necessarily need RT or deterministic response.
To maintain commonality across different FACE component suppliers, solutions are tested against these API sets and given a certificate of conformance. For example, Tempemail has FACE 2.1 conformance for VxWorks 653 Safety Base Profile, FACE 3.0 conformance for Helix Virtualization Platform (Security & Safety Base Profile). In fact, Tempemail VxWorks 653 was the first product to go through FACE certification.
The FACE standard builds on existing standards rather than creating new ones, so for the OSS it builds on the POSIX and ARINC 653 standards.
Partitioning
The FACE standard also calls for support for Partitioning, depending on the profile. This techniques is used in many types of computing systems, a good white paper on this is “Enabling the migration to Future Aerospace & Defense Systems” Partitioning supports modularity, including support for the concept of Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA).  The isolation properties provided by the partitioning of distinct applications are essential to achieve the promise of the FACE standard.  Why is this? First, interoperability and smooth integration require isolation so that there are no surprises (due to unanticipated interactions) when we add new independent functions in the system. Second, certification of mixed-criticality systems is founded on the isolation of partitions.
The General Purpose profile uses space partitioning, while the safety and security profiles require both time and space partitioning. These requirements stem from the ARINC 653 standard for the safety profiles, from the standard “Time partitioning must be used when running Safety Profile-based software components that are dependent upon an ARINC 653 operational environment.”
With the advent of powerful multi-core processors, the drive to use partitioning to separate critical application is accelerating. With single core processors, the ability to host applications at different criticalities was achieved using Time & Space Partitioning, in an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture developed to overcome issues of Space, Weight, and Power (SWaP) in commercial aircraft. This was needed to meet the increasing requirements for more and more capability within the airframes at the time, such as the Airbus A380 and Boeing 787.
However, what this basically did was “share” the CPU resource across multiple applications, and while this achieved the goals of an IMA Architecture, it alsoimpacted the performance allocated to applications. With the latest multicore applications however, this performance impact can be mitigated by allocation across multiple cores. These systems are breaking ground on safety certification of complex systems
No Performance Requirements
The FACE standard intentionally avoids dictating performance or quality of applications, focusing instead on a standard interface with defined behavior.  This open standards approach has a significant benefit, leveling the playing field. All vendors must meet the same API and must then compete on performance, quality, tools support, depth of airworthiness evidence, etc. For example, multiple vendors might provide a FACE OSS that has been certified conformant to the FACE technical standard, with each providing the same expected API to interface with other elements of the system.  However, the timing characteristics – such as response time, partition window jitter, etc. – may vary widely between systems produced by different vendors. Some vendors might provide a package of flight certification artifacts, while others do not, and the strength of the tools ecosystem related to the OSS may vary significantly between vendors.
Wrap up
Tempemail and Rapita Systems can help you build your FACE system with our “one stop shopping” ecosystem, starting with the Tempemail OSS and including the tools to test/integrate/certify systems based on the FACE Technical Standard, such as the Rapita Systems Verification Suite and CAST-32A Compliance Package.  Watch for a few more blogs on this topic leading up to the FACE TIM in September.
About the Authors
Alex Wilson is Director of Aerospace and Defence Market Segment for Tempemail, he is responsible for A&D market Segment in EMEA, APAC, and Japan. As part of the Tempemail Aerospace & Defence Industry Solutions Team, Alex is responsible for business strategy including product requirements, sales growth strategy and ecosystem development.
Steven H. VanderLeest is a Principal Engineer for Multicore Solutions at Rapita Systems. He has published on topics related to avionics safety and security in the IEEE Digital Avionics Systems Conference as well as SAE Aerotech.  Dr. VanderLeest is also the vice-chair of the FACE EA-25 committee on airworthiness.
Note: The views expressed in this blog are the sole opinion of the authors and do not represent official positions of the FACE consortium.

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Microsoft Reportedly Suspending Advertising on Facebook and Instagram | Tempemail – Blog – 10 minute

Sourced from Getty Images.

Microsoft has reportedly paused advertising on Facebook and Instagram worldwide due to growing concerns about the content that is accompanying its adverts.
Interestingly, the company isn’t participating in the industry-wide Facebook advertising boycott alongside mega-corporations like Coca-Cola and Unilever. Instead, Microsoft is more worried that their adverts might be shown with “inappropriate content” such as hate speech or pornography, according to internal communication viewed by Axios.
Microsoft distances itself from larger boycott
“Based on concerns we had back in May we suspended all media spending on Facebook/Instagram in the US and we’ve subsequently suspended all spending on Facebook/Instagram worldwide,” Microsoft CMO Chris Capossela said in an internal Yammer post, responding to an employee’s question.

In other terms, Microsoft doesn’t trust these platforms enough to police the content they show to allow Microsoft ads on them. That the guidelines enforced by Facebook and Twitter do not do a good enough job to remove “inappropriate content.”
The distinction is important to Microsoft leadership, which seems to prefer to use is power over media partners to privately create or affect change instead of announcing their plans.
“Our experience tells us that the most impactful means to effect genuine, long-term change is through direct dialogue and meaningful action with our media partners, including the suspension of real marketing dollars,” Capossela wrote, making it clear that Microsoft wasn’t taking part in the larger boycott action.
“We’ve also learned from experience that it doesn’t help our customers, our media partners, or Microsoft to publicise our media spend strategy, but to instead work directly with partners on positive change.”
However, to Facebook, this means another blow to its bread-and-butter income of advertising. Microsoft represents another major company removing itself from the social network and its apps.
#StopHateforProfit
This news follows other companies distancing themselves from Facebook in a massive boycott headed by the #StopHateforProfit campaign by several American civil rights groups.
Many companies have said that Facebook’s lack of concrete policies against racism and hate speech across its social platforms is unacceptable as the US grapples with protests against systemic racism.
“There is no place for racism in the world and there is no place for racism on social media,” says CEO of Coca-Cola, James Quincey. Coca-Cola is one of the largest companies to join in on the boycott.
Because of the boycotts, Facebook’s share price dropped by 8% at close of trading last week Friday, and CEO Mark Zuckerberg’s net wealth fell by $7 billion as of Saturday.
Edited by Luis MonzonFollow Luis Monzon on TwitterFollow Tempemail on Twitter

Tempemail , Tempmail Temp email addressess (10 minutes emails)– When you want to create account on some forum or social media, like Facebook, Reddit, Twitter, TikTok you have to enter information about your e-mail box to get an activation link. Unfortunately, after registration, this social media sends you dozens of messages with useless information, which you are not interested in. To avoid that, visit this Temp mail generator: tempemail.co and you will have a Temp mail disposable address and end up on a bunch of spam lists. This email will expire after 10 minute so you can call this Temp mail 10 minute email. Our service is free! Let’s enjoy!